Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is an illness caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), one of the major public health concerns in the globe. AIDS began in the 1980s and expended into a pandemic in the 1990s. Since then, it has been steadily increasing and there are approximately 34 million people currently infected with HIV. Almost 29 million people have died of AIDS-related causes since the beginning of the epidemic. While cases have been reported all over the world, 97% of the infected persons reside in low and middle-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Most people living with HIV or at risk of HIV do not have access to prevention, care or treatment, and up to now there is still no complete cure yet. HIV primarily affects those in their most productive years; about half of new infections are among those under the age 25 years. HIV not only affects the health of individuals, it impacts households, communities, and the development and economic growth of nations. New global efforts have been mounted to address the epidemic, particularly in the last decade.