This is the first study of new locality the Neot Zmadar with charophyte algae in the Negev Desert, Israel revealing the algal diversity and providing an ecological assessment of the habitat by bio-indication methods. Altogether thirty four species of algae were found including macro-algae Chara vulgaris L. in massive growth. Bio-indication and chemical variables characterize the charophyte site environment as oligotrophic to mesotrophic with prevailing of benthic type of organisms of autotrophic type of nutrition, mostly attached of substrate and preferring slow streaming water of temperate temperature, low salinity, low alkalinity, and low to middle organic pollution, the water quality Class II-III. The algal community and water quality show the organic and other contaminants increasing from the upper Pool 2 to lower Pool 3. The charophyte community is one of a few in the Negev with roundyear development, and the population is relatively old, since 1989. We found species-specific features of Chara vulgaris to be well developed under high insolation. The Neot Zmadar stream system is recommended for monitoring of charophyte community in unique anthropogenic aquatic object under increasing insolation impact, with Chara vulgaris as climatic indicator of resistance to sunlight intensity.
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