Recently, instances of aspiration pneumonia have led to an increased mortality rate in people of advanced age. As this is a disease caused by weakened swallowing of bolus, studying dysphagia–difficulty swallowing–has become especially important. In Japan, the standard diets for dysphagia are determined by the Japanese Society of Dysphagia Rehabilitation, which has two specifications: physical characteristics such as viscosity (assessed by the Line Spread Test) and thickness attributes. The Japan Consumer Affair Agency and Japan Care Food Conference have determined specifications for dysphagia diets that include desirable physical characteristics such as thickness attributes and ability to be swallowed. In the United States, the national standard for dietary treatment of dysphagia is based on food-texture and liquid levels.
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