An ecosystem is a community or combination of living and non-living things that work together. It can be as large as a desert or a lake or as small as a tree. Examples of ecosystems include pond, a forest, an estuary, grassland. Ecology simply means ecological systems. Ecology is the study of Ecosystems .It includes abiotic components like Sunlight, temperature, Precipitation, Water or moisture, Soil and biotic components like Primary producers, Herbivores, Carnivores, Omnivores, Detritivores.
All the parts of ecosystem work together to make a balanced system. They have energy flows and ecosystems cycle materials.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on December, 2020