|Diabetes mellitus is a devastating and complex metabolic disease, expected to affect over 500 million people worldwide by the year 2030; up from 350 million in 2010. Approximately 95% of patients suffer from type 2 diabetes, and its prevalence is expected to increase in the future. Furthermore, the age of onset for type 2 diabetic patients is trending toward earlier onset in adulthood. Diabetes is associated with severe long-term micro- and macrovascular complications, and carries a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Indeed, both type 1 and 2 diabetes are a significant public health concern with numerous debilitating complications, leading to a constant increase in treatment costs.
Currently, both type 1 and type 2 diabetes can be treated with insulin analogues and Pramlintide. Pramlintide or Amylin is a 37-residue peptide hormone that delays gastric emptying, and endorses satiety and inhibits glucagon secretion; averting post-prandial prickles in blood glucose levels. Recombinant modifications of insulin can act faster and longer, similar to endogenous insulin. The following drugs are used to treat type 2 diabetes: 1) Metformin, augments insulin release, 2) Sulphonylureas (Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and Meglitinides), increase insulin sensitivity, 3) Bromocriptine, antagonizes dopamine D2 and serotonin receptors, 4) Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) analogues, 5) Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, 6) Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors, and 7) Sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors.
Stem Cells Therapy in Diabetes Mellitus: Yang Xi and Shizhong Bu