|Nocturnal polyuria (NP) is an important cause of nocturia and it is related to an imbalance in water and/or sodium homeostasis. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are believed to play an important role in this excessive urine production overnight, however, many other hormones are involved. ADH and ANP are both directly and indirectly influenced by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), prostaglandins antagonize both ADH and RAAS and sex hormones have a predominantly antidiuretic effect by stimulating ADH and RAAS, meaning that any disturbance can lead to an imbalance in diuresis. Since nocturia is a condition affecting sleep, melatonin secretion can also be affected, leading to a decrease in the antidiuretic effect and to an increase of nocturnal urine production. Depending on the underlying condition affecting any of these hormones, a more specific therapeutic approach might lead to a restoration of the normal diuresis cycle and to a good nightâs sleep. The characteristics of each of these hormones, the pathophysiology in NP and the therapeutic implications are set out in this review.
Hormones and Nocturia: Guidelines for Medical Treatment? :An-Sofie Goessaert, Johan Vande Walle, Ayush Kapila and Karel Everaert