|The glucose metabolism is altered in the people with diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, the effectiveness of insulin is reduced and in type 1 diabetes, insulin levels in the body are low as the pancreatic beta cells stop producing insulin. Metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, impairs the bodyâs ability to use glucose. As a result blood sugars levels increases, weight gain is more expected and the resistance to insulin becomes greater. Glucose production is increased in people with type 2 diabetes before and after food intake. Excessive glucose production occurs due to delayed insulin secretion and lack of suppression of glucagon release. Regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes will require normalization of insulin and glucagon secretion as well as hepatic insulin action. In type 1 diabetes, the patients are administered with regular insulin for the glucose metabolism.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel âroadsâ towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is âself-archivingâ (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.