Lipids and carbohydrates are the energetic molecules and one of the main components of the metabolic system. These molecules circulate in the blood stream and between the metabolic tissues and transfer energy throughout the body. They are degraded and release their energy in the form of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) to be used in anabolic reactions. Anabolic reactions are the energy consumer reactions for synthesis of molecules or energy storage. These include glycogenolysis, glycolysis, Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA, citric acid or the Krebs) cycle, electron transfer chain, and fatty acid beta oxidation and protein breakdown. Carbohydrates are the main energetic molecules that are consumed by active tissues like muscles. In excess consumption of carbohydrates, they are converted to lipid molecules to be stored in the adipose tissue for the time of starvation. This matter is one of the most important functions of the body in energy homeostasis. Lipid-carbohydrate interaction is one of the fundamental parameters in regulation of the energy metabolic system. Disturbance in the function of the adipose tissue as the main fat storage organ of the body leads to FAID and consequently metabolic disorders. In this review, the biochemical pathways of the main energetic molecule of the body (lipids) are summarized in such a way that researchers can follow the association between these pathways easily. Understanding these biochemical pathways will help biologists to comprehend the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases properly.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel âroadsâ towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is âself-archivingâ (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on September, 2014