|The importance of antibiotics to medicine has led to much research into their discovery and production. Microorganisms used in fermentation are rarely identical to the wild type. This is because species are often genetically modified to produce the maximum amount of antibiotics. Scholarly peer review is the process of subjecting an author's scholarly work, research, or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field, before a paper describing this work is published in a journal. The work may be accepted, considered acceptable with revisions, or rejected. Peer review requires a community of experts in a given (narrowly defined) field, who are qualified and able to perform reasonably impartial review.