Although tobacco smoking has been shown to be significantly associated with many CRDs, evidence linking secondhand tobacco smoke exposure to different CRDs is inconsistent, especially with low levels of SHS exposure. Research on the health effects of SHS exposure pose a particular challenge due to the tools used to measure SHS exposure. For example, it has been shown that self-report of SHS exposure can be inaccurate, frequently underestimating SHS exposure. One type of measurement tool designed to increase the accuracy of a subjectÃ¢â¬â¢s SHS exposure, particularly at low levels of SHS exposure, are biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure. Thus, robust studies investigating associations between SHS exposure and CRDs frequently include both self-report as well as objective biomarker measurements to verify or quantify such exposures. The two most recent incarnations of the NHANES series, the NHANES III and the continuous NHANES, include serum biomarker data of tobacco smoke exposure which create both significant advantages as well as complications for research using data from this study. We review both NHANES studies regarding survey design and data available. John D. Clark III, Utilization of the National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES) Survey for Symptoms, Tests, and Diagnosis of Chronic Respiratory Diseases and Assessment of Second hand Smoke Exposure.
Scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further progress of science, usually by reporting novel research. There are thousands of scientific journals in publication, and many more have been published at various points in the past. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals publish articles and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Scientific journals contain articles that are peer reviewed, to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity. The publication of the results of research is an essential part of the scientific method. If they are describing experiments or calculations, they must supply enough details that an independent researcher could repeat the experiment or calculation to verify the results. Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record.
Last date updated on September, 2014