It is an abnormal growth of the bone tissues. It can either be malignant or benign. It can be divided into two categories- primary bone tumors and secondary bone tumors. Primary bone tumors are benign or cancerous. It starts in the distal femur or proximal tibia. Secondary bone tumors are malignant tumors. They spread to other parts of the body also like prostate and lungs and hence are more dangerous. The cause of bone tumors is still not known, it may occur due to some genes or environmental factors. Anticancer drugs in some cases may also be responsible for this tumor. In some cases the people who underwent bone surgery or have metal rods injected in the bones due to some fractures the bone tumor may occur because of injury made to the brain. Bone tumors can be diagnosed by CT scan, MRI scan or by angiogram. Benign bone tumor can be easily treated but the malignant bone tumors are a matter of a concern. It can be treated by surgery or by chemotherapy.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel âroadsâ towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is âself-archivingâ (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on September, 2014