The term stenosis refers to the narrow and pyloric refers to the stomach so pyloric stenosis is the narrowing of the opening of stomach to the ileum or the first portion of small intestine. Thus it affects the gastrointestinal tract leading to many stomach problems. It generally affects the babies because in them there is broadening of the pylorus muscles in the stomach without known cause due to which the pyloric opening gets narrower. The signs and symptoms of pyloric stenosis include vomiting, hungry after vomiting and in some cases peristalsis may occur in the upper abdomen of the babies. As the baby is unable to take food properly so the baby may suffer from weight loss. Pyloric stenosis may occur due to genetic and environmental factors and no known cause is known till now. If pyloric stenosis is not cured at proper time then it may lead to jaundice or diarrhea. The treatment for pyloric stenosis includes the opening of the pyloric space so that the food can reach the small intestine and it can be done by surgery called pyloromyotomy with the help of endoscope.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel âroadsâ towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is âself-archivingâ (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on September, 2014