Tuberculosis (TB) is a common infection affecting patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and diabetes mellitus (DM). With the increasing trend of HIV/AIDS (more affected the Extra PTB) and DM (PTB were found in higher incidence), markedly increase the incidence of TB. Cytokine dysregulations have been observed, decreased production of interferon-_ (IFN-_) caused by HIV, compromises the hostâs ability to combat invasion by tubercle bacilli and thereby, facilitates reactivation of dormant foci of TB. Tumor necrosis factor-_ (TNF-_), a stimulatory agent for some cell lines was noted to increase during the retroviral disease, which enhances HIV replication and progression of the AIDS disease process.
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Last date updated on December, 2020