Anemia of chronic Inflammation leads to increased hepcidin production via IL-6 and decreased erythropoietin levels, whereas factors associated with increased erythropoiesis (hypoxia, bleeding, hemolysis, and dyserythropoiesis) suppress the production of hepcidin. Serum iron levels are believed to influence how much hepcidin is produced in the liver; with low iron levels decreasing hepcidin production and high iron levels encouraging its production. Hepcidin is secreted into plasma, excreted in urine and has been shown to prevent the absorption of iron from the digestive tract, also inhibit the release of stored iron from macrophages and hepatocytes.
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