|The process through which Cells can communicate with each other is known as signal transduction This involves long strings of chemical messages, often known as signal transduction cascades. Signal transduction cascades plays a vital role in the communication of cells with each other, dictating gene expression or activation of otherwise inactive molecules. Peer review refers to the work done during the screening of submitted manuscripts and funding applications. This process encourages authors to meet the accepted standards of their discipline and reduces the dissemination of irrelevant findings, unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations, and personal views. Publications that have not undergone peer review are likely to be regarded with suspicion by academic scholars and professionals.