It can often be called as Carcinogenesis or tumorigenesis which means cancer creation. It is a process by which cancer cells are transformed by normal cells and is characterized by a progression of changes at genetic and epigenetic level.Carcinogenesis is caused by mutation of the genetic material of normal cells and finally results in uncontrolled cell division which leads to benign tumors.These tumors do not spread to other parts of the body and they are rarely life threatening.Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel âroadsâ towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is âself-archivingâ (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on September, 2014