alexa Molecular Machinery of Apoptosis

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Molecular Machinery of Apoptosis

Apoptosis, or Programmed Cell Death (PCD), is a critical process whose proper regulation is essential to cellular and tissue homeostasis and is frequently perturbed during the course of autoimmunity, degenerative diseases, and neoplasia. Although conceptually first described in the 1800s, the cellular and histological changes associated with apoptosis were not differentiated from injurious cellular rupture until the 1960s and 1970s by seminal work from Kerr, Wyllie, and Currie. The term apoptosis was adopted from the Greek language wherein it refers to the falling off of petals from a flower or leaves from a tree, which represents the characteristic blebbing of cellular contents during apoptosis. Other morphological changes that occur during apoptosis include cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and exposure of the normally intracellular-facing lipid phosphatidylserine, the latter acting as a signal for phagocytosis by neighboring more 



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