Metastatic capability of tumor cells

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Metastatic capability of tumor cells

The metastasis of cancer cells to the draining lymph nodes is usually the initial step in systemic spreading of cancer and is the most important unfavorable prognostic factor in many types of carcinoma [1-5]. The molecular mechanisms inside the lymph node favorable for survival and further spreading of cancer cells remain unclear. There is a specific type of blood vessel called the high endothelial venule (HEV) inside the lymph node. Under normal conditions, HEVs produce a specific marker protein, peripheral node addressin (PNAd), which is a ligand that is recognized by the homing receptor L-selectin expressed in the cellular membrane of naïve lymphocytes [6-8]. The interaction between PNAd and L-selectin results in the extravasation of lymphocytes from the circulation into the lymphoid tissue. HEVs seldom harbor red blood cells under normal conditions, instead being focused on immune more


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