Human blood is divided into four major different types: A, B, Ab, and O. The differences are due to antigens present on the surface of the blood cells. Antigens are substances that produce an immune reaction by their nature of being perceived as foreign to the body. In response, the body produces substances called antibodies that nullify or neutralize the antigens. In blood, these antigens are called agglutinogens because their presence can cause the blood to clot. An individual with type AB blood is a universal recipient, and an individual with type O blood is a universal donor.
Peer review refers to the work done during the screening of submitted manuscripts and funding applications. This process encourages authors to meet the accepted standards of their discipline and reduces the dissemination of irrelevant findings, unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations, and personal views. Publications that have not undergone peer review are likely to be regarded with suspicion by academic scholars and professionals.
Last date updated on September, 2014