|Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI: acute nasopharyngitis, sinusitis, acute otitis, tonsillitis, viral croup, or pneumonia) are characterized by the onset of more than six respiratory infections per year or more than one upper respiratory infection per month or more than three lower respiratory infections during the period of maximum exposure (September to April), in a child that does not suffer pathological conditions to justify respiratory infections recurrence, such as primary immunodeficiencies, HIV infection, cystic fibrosis, immotile cilia syndrome or congenital abnormalities. In western countries ARTI occurs in 25% of children within the first year of life and in 18% of children in the age group of 1-4 years.
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