|Aplastic anemia is a life-threatening pancytopenia with an incidence of two cases per million per year and a two-year mortality rate of 40%. Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), previously known as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, is now recognized as an immune-mediated platelet disorder that occurs more commonly in children than adults, with peak pediatric incidence of 4-6 children per year, often between two and five years of age. Orbital myositis is inflammation of the extraocular muscles that commonly affects young adults and children with a female predilection of 2:1. Amyloidosis refers to the deposition of insoluble fibrils in the extracellular spaces of organs and tissues. Bordetella pertussis, a Gram-negative coccobacillus, classically causes whooping cough in infants and young children. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a rare congenital entity consisting of distinctive venous malformations in the skin and gastrointestinal tract that can result in bleeding and chronic anemia.
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