The university began as the Office of the Governor-General of Taiwan Advanced Academy of Agronomy and Forestry founded by the Japanese in Taihoku (modern-day Taipei) in 1919 during Japanese rule. After 1928, the academy became a special department affiliated to Taihoku Imperial University (now National Taiwan University). The department became an independent school again in 1943 and was moved to TaichÅ« (modern-day Taichung).
After the Kuomintang took over Taiwan in 1945, the school was reorganized and renamed Taiwan Provincial Taichung Agricultural Junior College. In 1946, the Junior College evolved into a higher institution, the Taiwan Provincial College of Agriculture. In 1961, it combined with the newly established College of Science and Engineering on the same Taichung campus and the College of Law and Business founded in Taipei in 1949, to become "Taiwan Provincial Chung Hsing University". The name "Chung Hsing refers to Chinese national revival.
In 1964, an evening school was set up on the Taipei campus. In 1968 another evening school and the College of Liberal Arts were added to the Taichung campus. The University continued to grow in size, but it was not until 1971 that it became a national university and assumed its present name: National Chung Hsing University.
The College of Veterinary Medicine was established in September 1999. In February 2000, the Taipei campus including the College of Law & Business and the Taipei evening school was combined into the newly established National Taipei University. The College of Social Sciences & Management was established on the Taichung campus at the same time. In August 2002, the Extension Division and the Extension Education Center was combined into the Extension Division for Inservice and Continuing Education.
The university now has six colleges plus two evening schools on two campuses, and it is noted for various fields of study. At present, the University has more than 17 thousand students, of which over 2,000 are graduate students.
In addition the University has more than a thousand people of staff and faculty members. For administration, the University has three main offices and five subsidiary offices. The three main offices are the Office of Academic Affairs, the Office of Student Affairs, and the Office of General Affairs. The five subsidiary offices are the Secretariat Office, the Personnel Office, the Accounting Office, the Office of Military Training, and The Office of Physical Education. The University also has several service centers, a library, and other sub-units. The service centers include the Computer Center and Art Center.