The survival of the patients with ÃŸ-thalassemia major has improved recently due to both effective oral chelating agents and novel imaging modalities pointing visceral iron burden earlier. Extending patientsâ€™ survival, organ dysfunctions have been significant issue for hematologists since 2000s. Little attention has been paid to renal injury in patients with thalassemia major (TM) although a large number of studies have been performed on various organ complications. Regarding renal injury, several factors might play role in patients with TM. Chronic hypoxia, ongoing hemolysis, iron overload owing to transfusions and possible nephrotoxicity of chelators are well-known reasons of the deterioration in renal functions. In the present study, we aimed both to evaluate renal functions of our TM patients and evaluate the factors leading to renal injury. We also thought that a better understanding and early awareness of the renal dysfunction in TM patients could enable the development of novel strategies to prevent progression of the disease.