Budapest University of Jewish Studies was established in 1877 where the rabbinical seminiaries oldest existing institution in the world. The institute was under the supervision of the ministry of religion, which appointed the teachers upon nominations by the council with M. Schweiger as president and Dr. J. Simon secretary since 1877. The course of study extended over ten years and was divided into two equal periods; one being devoted to the lower department, the other to the upper. The former corresponded to an "Obergymnasium"; and the requirement for admission was the possession of a diploma from an "Untergymnasium", or the passing of an entrance examination covering a certain amount of Hebrew and Talmudics in addition to secular studies. The diplomas from this department were recognized by the state, and commanded admittance into any department of the universities or schools of technology. After the completion of the courses offered by the upper department, including attendance under the faculty of philosophy at the university, a year of probation followed. This was concluded in February by an oral examination after the candidate had presented three written theses on Biblical, rabbinic-Talmudic, and historical or religious-philosophical subjects respectively. At graduation he received a rabbinical diploma, which was recognized by the state. To supplement the regular course of training there were students societies in both departments. The library of the institute contained about 25,000 volumes of manuscripts and printed works, which were accessible to all in the reading-room.