The National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis [Formerly Tuberculosis Research Centre (TRC)], a permanent institute under the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), is an internationally recognized institution for Tuberculosis (TB) research. It is a Supranational Reference Laboratory and a WHO Collaborating Centre for TB Research and Training. Recently, an International Centre for Excellence in Research (ICER) in collaboration with NIH was established at the Centre. The Centre (formerly known as the Tuberculosis Chemotherapy Centre) was set up in Madras in 1956 as a 5-year project, under the joint auspices of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), the Government of Tamil Nadu, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the British Medical Research Council (BMRC). The objective of the Centre was to develop studies designed to provide information on the mass domiciliary application of chemotherapy in the treatment of pulmonary TB. It started its activities with 8 international staff members belonging to the WHO and a team of national staff members drawn for ICMR and the Government of Tamil Nadu under the dynamic leadership of Dr. Wallace Fox of the BMRC.