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Institute of Oncology Research is part of the Research Division of the Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland (IOSI). It is a comprehensive cancer center Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale (EOC) and it is the basic facility for translational research. The Laboratory was established in 2003 in Bellinzona, Canton Ticino, and is located in the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB). About 50 researchers are employed in this institute. The Institute is directed by Carlo Catapano MD, PhD. It comprises different groups working in the areas of tumor biology, genomics, molecular oncology and experimental therapeutics. The expertise available in the Institute spans from cell and molecular biology to molecular pharmacology, genomics and bioinformatics. IOR serves also as a training facility for Swiss and international undergraduate and graduate students, post-doctoral and clinical fellows in collaboration with Swiss and Italian Universities. Investigation based on genetic basis of cancer is advanced in last decades and we started understanding the molecular alterations present in specific types of tumors. A major challenge remains in the ability to translate this knowledge in novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies that could have a significant impact on the survival of cancer patients. Identifying the specific molecular and genetic alterations implicated in cancer and developing the molecular-targeted therapies for treatment decreases the toxicity to the patient than current treatment modalities.