The Institute for development research IRD is a community science and technology creation (EPST) under the combined supervision of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research and the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs. The main phases in the history of the Institute: 1. The colonial period: The ORSCâs mission is: â¢ to form a group of researchers â¢ to generate a high-level scientific training studying in the tropics â¢ to start a network of research centres in the French foreign territories. 2. The independence: The liberation of the African countries New joint supervision: â¢ Minister of nationwide education, â¢ Secretary of State for Relations with States of the community New mission: â¢ to start basic research towards the growth of tropical countries, â¢ to undertake a policy of scientific and technical cooperation with third world countries. 3. The development research: ORSTOM alters the Institute of Development Research (IRD) (Decree of 5 November): â¢ Formation of an operation by dedicated units. â¢ 5 scientific branches â¢ The environment in general â¢ Living capitals â¢ Society and health â¢ Capability and development â¢ Funding and training of scientific communities in the South. â¢ Assessment and scientific excellence Research Joint research unit A Combined Research Unit is an managerial structure, which is set up by diverse higher education and research institutions by combining human resources and equipment, built on a joint strategy and common scientific project. Once a research unit gains the âjoint research unit or UMRâ status, it gains access, for four years, to two types of funding: that of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research and that of collaborating research organisations. This administrative unit is recognized within the framework of the four-year contracts for the growth of higher education institutions. These contracts are central to the system put in place in order to define the relationship between higher education and research institutions, and the State. A Joint Research Unit is created for a period of four years at the time of the passing the of the four-year contract by the University and by the Ministry of Higher Education and Research. This contract is also signed by the managing directors of the collaborating research groups. International joint research units The IRD executed international joint research units, since 2007, as part of its on-going mission to support training, research and to promote research in the field of development, to combine scientific groups in the South and to reinforce North-South and South-South collaborations. These structures intend to: Activate IRD teams (located in France, abroad or in overseas regions and communities) and Southern teams around objectives or areas of research in the area of development, of interest to all parties involved. Encourage the sharing and corresponding of a scientific skills and objectives around a common scientific theme, which can be examined at a regional or international level. Promote a multidisciplinary approach to research. Pool the technical infrastructures and/or equipment with the goal of sharing responsibilities in a bi-or multilateral context. Better combine the research/training aspects, at the PhD level but also at the Masters level.