The Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research (IISR), Lucknow was established in 1952 by Indian Central Sugarcane Committee for conducting researches on fundamental and applied aspects of sugarcane culture as well as to co-ordinate the research work done on this crop in different States of the country. The Institute is located in Lucknow and the climate of the location is subtropical semi-arid. The Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research is an autonomous institute under Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) and is supported by the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India for advanced research in sugar cane agriculture. The Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research hosted a Botany and Breeding Unit for Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore during the sixties and, in 1969, the unit was transferred to IISR. The Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research incurs its origin to the recommendations of the erstwhile The Indian Central Sugarcane Committee for advanced research on all aspects of sugarcane cultivation except breeding and coordination of sugarcane researches across the country. The Centre focuses its attention on the development of sugarcane varieties, evaluation of waterlogging tolerance, red rot resistance and mechanization of sugarcane cultivation. The Centre has developed several varieties of sugarcane for distribution and is involved in breeder seed development of improved varieties. There are many divisions like Division of Crop Improvement, Crop Production, Crop Protection, Division of Physiology and Biochemistry, Division of Agricultural Engineering, etc. which works vigorously and enhances sugarcane productivity, profitability and sustainability to meet future sugar and energy requirement of India. The Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research developed a high sugar yielding cane variety, CoLk 94184 which has been released for commercial cultivation. CoLk 94184 is a rare combination of two desirable attributes i.e., early maturity and good ratooning ability. This variety will help in addressing the problem of low sugar and poor ratoonability of the existing sugarcane varieties in the region. CoLk 94184 variety can withstand both moisture stress and waterlogging, hence, it is capable of providing a boost to sugar recovery and cane production in U. P. and Bihar. On an average farmers can harvest 76 tonnes of cane per hectare. IISR is committed to develop and strengthen links with national and international institutions involved in sugarcane research and development. With the emergence of private sector in agricultural research and development, public-private partnership in sugarcane research and development will be forthcoming for strategic and locations specific technology development and dissemination. Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research with diverse challenges and constraints as growing population, increasing food, feed and fodder needs, natural resource degradation, climate change, new parasites, slow growth in farm income and new global trade regulations demand a paradigm shift in formulating and implementing the agricultural research programmes. The emerging scenario necessitates the institutions of ICAR to have perspective vision which could be translated through proactive, novel and innovative research approach based on cutting edge science. In this endeavour, all of the institutions of ICAR, have revised and prepared respective Vision-2030 documents highlighting the issues and strategies relevant for the next twenty years.