United States Naval Research Laboratory opened in 1923 at the instigation of Thomas Edison is a corporate research laboratory for the Navy and Marine Corps and conducts a broad program of scientific research, technology and advanced development, applied research, technological development and prototyping. The laboratorys current specialties include plasma physics, space physics, materials science, and tactical electronic warfare. Naval Research Laboratory researchers published 1,398 unclassified scientific & technical articles, book chapters and conference proceedings. Current area research are Advanced radio, optical and infrared sensors, Marine geosciences, Meteorology, Electronic warfare, Oceanography, Undersea technology, Surveillance and sensor technology. NRL is currently researching: armor for munitions in transport, high-powered lasers, remote explosives detection, spintronics, the dynamics of explosive gas mixtures, electromagnetic Railgun technology, detection of hidden nuclear materials, etc., In 2012 NRL has 2,413 full-time employees, the majority being professional or technical scientists and engineers (70%) along with administrative staff (26%), enlisted military (2%), military officers (1%) and senior executives (1%). Of permanent civilian employees, 31 percent have Bachelors degrees, 21 percent have Masters degrees and 47 percent have a Doctorate degree. The laboratory also hosts post-doctoral researchers and was voted #15 in the Best Places to Work Postocs 2013 survey.