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Determinants of Job Satisfaction in Rescue Workers 11 22 in Addiction
ISSN: 2155-6105

Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
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  • Mini Review   
  • J Addict Res Ther 475, Vol 13(6)
  • DOI: 10.4172/2155-6105.100475

Determinants of Job Satisfaction in Rescue Workers 11 22 in Addiction

Melka Tolessa*
Departmalest of Biochemistry, Addis Ababa University, college of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
*Corresponding Author: Melka Tolessa, Departmalest of Biochemistry, Addis Ababa University, college of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Email: [email protected]

Received: 28-May-2022 / Manuscript No. jart-22-69532 / Editor assigned: 30-May-2022 / PreQC No. jart-22-69532(PQ) / Reviewed: 13-Jun-2022 / QC No. jart-22-69532 / Revised: 17-Jun-2022 / Manuscript No. jart-22-69532 (R) / Accepted Date: 20-Jun-2022 / Published Date: 24-Jun-2022 DOI: 10.4172/2155-6105.100475


After the earth quake of Oct 8, 2005 in Pakistan the first structured emergency service was started by the government. This is the most used charitable emergency service in Pakistan. At the start this service was called Rescue 1122. In few months after its success, Rescue 1122 services was distended geographically to thirty five Punjab districts of geographic region, and its tasks were distended to incorporate rescue services, disaster response groups including community welfare programs. Rescue 1122 soon met the global standards of emergency management designed by World Health Organization (WHO). From the time when it originated, Rescue 1122 has saved 1, 675, 247 people from emergency situations. The period interval has been a median of six minutes, which is excellent performance bearing in mind the population of Punjab which is eighty million. Rescue 1122 has 15 centers operational within Lahore. Rescue staff when dealing with disaster often faces traumatic after effects and are in danger of health issues [1]. Resilience and optimism are associated to psychological well-being [2]. Resilience is a dynamic, flexible and developable psychological capability or strength. It is consistent with positive psychological science. It is characterized as positive adaptation in adversity [3,4]. Positive and clinical psychological literature support the role of resiliency in increasing many aspects of human functioning, significantly in adaptation and posttraumatic cope [5]. The reason of resilience showed that people WHO are high at construct of resiliency not solely adapt the trying things, still are intended to be told from difficult experiences. Life introduction is delineated inside the sort of optimism. Optimism is related as educational vogue that ascribes positive activities to emotional, stable, and general reasons; while credits negative occasions to outer, transient, and situation particular elements. Psychological well-being comprises of constructive associations with others, individual authority, independence, a feeling of direction and which implies throughout everyday life, and private development and advancement. Psychological well-being is earned by accomplishing a condition of equalization tormented by each troublesome and compensating life occasions. Work fulfillment alludes to general constructive sentiments towards one's occupations dependent on their own emotional experience and individual attributes. Rescue employees are hidden victims of traumatic events, which can jeopardize their psychological well-being. Job satisfaction is a measure of workers' contentedness with their work, whether or not they like their work or personal aspects or facets of jobs, like nature of work or regulation. Job fulfillment demands representatives' emotions or passionate empathy, which has real results on their lives. Resilience is the consequence of people having the capacity to connect with their surroundings and the procedures that either advance prosperity or secure them against the staggering impact of hazard factors. Life Orientation is designed for creating and intriguing learners in personal, psychological, motor, moral, physical, spiritual, neuro-cognitive, cultural and socio-economic areas, to reach their full potential. This learning space is supposed to push human rights, social justice and inclusiveness, as a healthy surrounding and teach individuals to practice their constitutional rights and responsibilities.

According to a web log ‘positive psychology’ article by authors found out that 60% individuals tend to be optimistic. It is the most important aspect of life and has adaptive qualities. Psychological Well-Being and Job Satisfaction is linked together. It is “the overall effectiveness of associate degree individual’s psychological functioning as associated with primary sides of one’s life: work, family and community. PWB is primarily measured victimization the eightitem Index of Psychological Well-Being developed by Berkman (IPWB). High job satisfaction in associated with higher productivity and lower turnout wherever positive thinking or optimism influence their job satisfaction and with optimistic life orientation and magnified resilience. Authors found rescue staff was experiencing psychological distress. Resilience factors ought to be thought-about whereas planning trainings to preserve psychological state and to boost the psychological well-being of rescue staff. Study Results in Pakistan advised that rescue staff high on personal resources also is having higher psychological state, but inverse correlation was found between job satisfaction and optimism. Individuals doing a job of rescue workers have to face different kind of fatal situations and emergencies like road accidents and fire. The traumatic experience of others exerts great impact on the rescue worker’s emotional and physical health.

The aim of the present study is to explore the determinants of job satisfaction. In addition it also intent to find relations among Resilience, Life Orientation, Psychological Well-being and Job Satisfaction among Rescue workers 1122. Hypothesis was Life Orientation, Resilience, Psychological Well-being are predictor of Job Satisfaction among Rescue workers.

Materials and Methods

A design used in this research is co-relational research design (Table 1).

Demographic Characteristics F %
Age 25 -40 - -
Gender Male 200 100
Education Matric 37 18.5
Intermediate 57 28.5
Bachelors 74 37.0
Masters 31 15.5
Family System Extended (with parents) 145 73.5
Separate(with wife and children) 55 27.5
Job type Emergency Services 100 100
Fire Fighter 100 100
Salary 15000-25000 23 11.4
26000-35000 119 59.2
36000-45000 56 27.9
46000-55000 2 1.0
Experience 0-2 51 25.5
3-5 63 31.5
6-10 41 20.5
11-15 44 22.0
Scale Grade 6th 10 5.0
8 17 8.5
11 155 77.5
12 17 8.5
16 1 0.5

Table 1: A design used in this research is co-relational research design.

The non-probability purposive sampling technique was used to collect data. The participants of the study were rescue worker with the age range 25-45 years. For this purpose 100 fire fighter and 100 emergency workers from different rescue center were taken as a sample. Sample was calculated by G-Power analysis. Total number of sample were N= 200. Inclusion Criteria was Fire fighter and emergency workers between age ranges 25-45 was included in this study, Individuals with at least 1-year of experience were taken, all the designated people who are working rescue worker they were approach. The Exclusion Criteria included Individuals with any Physical disability/ health issues were excluded in this research. Research Instruments used were as follows:

1. Demographic information sheet

2. Standardized Research Instruments

3. Job Satisfaction Survey (2010), developed by Spector in 1985

4. Indigenous Resilience Scale (2010) developed by Madeha Naz, Sadia Saleem and Zahid Mehmood .

5. Life orientation Test Revised (2013) was developed by Scheier, 1994 and translated by Huda and Kausar( 2013).

6. Psychological well-being scale. (2010) developed by Carol Ryff (1989) and translated by Aslam and Kausar (2010).

Procedure of Data Collection

The present study was undertaken in rescue centers of Lahore. The permission was taken from official power of rescue centers. The participants were independently approached by convenient sampling technique. Informed consent was taken from every participant. They was confident about information were set aside confidential and would not disclose. Their information would be used only for research purpose. A copy of the demographic sheet, Indigenous Resilience Scale and Life orientation Test Revised Psychological wellbeing and job satisfaction would be given to participants. Instructions would be given in both verbal and written form. Participants were right to withdraw from responding to the questionnaire.

Ethical considerations

We follow the ethical considerations for the study. Most important ethics were followed:

1. No harm would be given to subjects

2. Respect all participants.

3. Full consent of subjects prior to the study.

4. Privacy was ensured.

5. Confidentiality was ensured.

6. Result was showed with those participants who want know about research finding.


1. Data was analysis according to hypothesis, using SPSS 21.

2. Hypotheses were tested through Pearson Product Moment Correlation.

3. The prediction was carried out through hierarchical regression analysis.


Psychometrics properties of the Job Satisfaction Survey, Indigenous Resilience Scale, Life Orientation Test & Psychological Well Being scales (Table 2).

Variables K Α M SD Range Skewness
Potential Actual
Job Satisfaction 36 .86 140.94 25.10 1-6 88-211 .88
Pay 4 .57 15.21 4.64 1-6 4-24 16
Promotion 4 .50 15.19 4.51 1-6 4-24 -21
Supervision 4 .51 8.27 2.22 1-6 6-24 .01
Fringe benefits 4 .41 14.12 4.02 1-6 4-24 -.01
Contingent rewards 4 .47 15.01 4.15 1-6 4-24 .50
Operating Conditions 4 .41 13.04 3.58 1-6 4-24 .25
Coworkers 4 .53 17.63 4.14 1-6 9-24 .15
Nature of work 4 .53 18.74 4.08 1-6 7-24 -33
Communication 4 .63 16.09 4.85 1-6 4-24 .17
Indigenous Resilience 48 .89 94.66 19.32 0-3 35-143 -.01
Self confidence 16 .84 33.17 7.74 0-3 11-48 -.26
Self-control 14 .74 28.31 7.08 0-3 11-60 .36
Vulnerability 5 .78 5.95 3.91 0-3 0-15 .28
Extroversion 8 .71 15.19 4.11 0-3 5-24 .05
Spirituality 5 .53 11.42 3.10 0-3 4-32 -.02
Life orientation scale 10 .60 24.96 5.30 0-4 11-38 .13
Optimism 3 .53 8.21 2.61 0-4 10-16 -56
Pessimism 3 .31 6.25 2.25 0-4 .00-11 -54
Psychological Well Being 84 .92 341 52.41 1-6 267-396 -01
Autonomy 14 .62 56.47 9.64 1-6 34-69 -.003
Environmental mastery 14 .73 57.07 10.42 1-6 29-71 -.29
Personal growth 14 .71 57.36 9.66 1-6 24-58 -.56
Positive relation with others 14 .62 58.52 8.98 1-6 35-61 -.28
Purpose in life 14 .64 55.29 9.35 1-6 37-84 .49
Self-acceptance 14 .58 56.42 11.48 1-6 36-74 .41

Table 2: Psychometrics properties of the Job Satisfaction Survey, Indigenous Resilience Scale, Life Orientation Test & Psychological Well Being scales.

Table 2 show that the alpha reliability of Job Satisfaction Scale is Cronbach’s .86 , Indegious Resilience Scale is Cronbach’s.89, life orientation scale is Cronbach’s @ .60 , Psychological wellbeing scale is Cronbach’s .92 (Table 3).

Sr# Variables I II III IV
I Job Satisfaction - .23** .45** .40**
II Indigenous Resilience - .13 .05
III Life Orientation - .50**
IV Psychological Wellbeing -
Mean 140.94 94.06 24.96 329.39
SD 25.10 19.32 5.30 24.09
Correlation is significant at the **P<.01 level (2-tailed).

Table 3:Correlation matrix for job satisfaction, Indigenous Resilience, Life orientation and Psychological Well-being.

The correlation matrix of Positive relationship between Job Satisfaction, Resilience, Life Orientation and Psychological Wellbeing among Rescue workers is likely to occur. Table 3 displays Job Satisfaction, Indigenous Resilience, Life Orientation, and Psychological Wellbeing. Job Satisfaction has positively Correlation with Indigenous Resilience (r=.23, p=0.01), Job Satisfaction has positively Correlation with Life Orientation (r=.45, p=0.01), Job Satisfaction has positively Correlation with Psychological Wellbeing (r=.40,p=0.01). Life Orientation has positively Correlation with Psychological Wellbeing (r=.50, p=0.01) (Table 4).

Job Satisfaction
Rescue Workers
Predictors ∆R2 Β
Step 1 .20**
LOT .45**
Step 2 .23
IRS .18**
Step 3 .27
PWB .24**
R2 28%
N 200
Note: *p<.05; **p<.01; **p<.001; B = Standardized Co efficient; ∆R2= Adjusted R Square, R2= R Square, N= Number of participants, LOT =life orientation, IRS=Indigenous Resilience,PWB=Psychological Wellbeing.

Table 4: Hierarchal regression model of Life Orientation, Resilience and Psychological Wellbeing as predictors of Job Satisfaction.

Hierarchal Regression was conducted in order to find predictive relationship of Life Orientation, Resilience and Psychological Wellbeing as predictors of Job Satisfaction. Results show that overall model stepwise was significant F (51.78), p<.000 shows variance 45% variance in Life Orientation is a strong significant predictor of Job Satisfaction. Overall variances show stepwise F (30.94), p<.002 show 18% variance in Indigenous Resilience and it is mild moderator of the Job Satisfaction. The Results show stepwise F (25.84), p<.00 shows 24 % variance that moderately significant predictor of Job Satisfaction (Table 5).

Variable Category M SD N
Psychological wellbeing Emergency 328.66 24.24 100
Fire fighter 330.14 24.04 100
Total 329.39 24.09 200
Indigenous Resilience Emergency 94.94 19.10 100
Fire fighter 93.16 19.59 100
Total 94.06 19.32 200
Life Orientation Emergency 25.77 5.53 100
Fire fighter 24.13 4.95 100
Total 24.96 5.30 200
Job Satisfaction Emergency 148.07 26.33 100
Fire fighter 133.67 21.59 100
Total 140.94 25.10 200

Table 5: Descriptive table of MANOVA difference between Emergency and Fire Fighter in on Psychological Wellbeing, Indigenous Resilience, Life Orientation, Job Satisfaction.

Psychological Wellbeing was investigated among 100 Emergency Rescue workers M=328.66 (SD =24.24) and 100 Fire Fighter Rescue workers, M=330.14 (SD =24.04). Further Indigenous Resilience was accessed among 100 Emergency Rescue workers M=94.94 (SD =19.10) and 100 Fire Fighter Rescue workers, M=93.16 (SD =19.59). Life Orientation was illustrated among 100 Emergency Rescue workers M=25.77 (SD =5.53) and 100 fire fighter rescue workers, M=24.96 (SD =4.95). Job Satisfaction was accessed among 100 Emergency Rescue workers M=148.07 (SD =26.33) and 100 Fire Fighter rescue workers, M=133.67 (SD =21.59) (Table 6).

Source of Job type Dependent Variable Df MS F Sig. 2 Observed Powered
Emergency services and fire fighter Psychological wellbeing 1 109.22 .18 .66 .001 .07
Indigenous resilience 1 158.22 .42 .51 .002 .09
Life orientation 1 134.62 .48 .02 .024 .59
Job satisfaction 1 1370.76 17.84 .00 .083 .98

Table 6: Coefficient table of MANOVA difference between Emergency Services and Fire Fighter in on Psychological Wellbeing, Indigenous Resilience, Life Orientation, Job Satisfaction.

Analysis of two way Manova indicated that the main effect of job type on psychological wellbeing F (1,198) =.187,p= ns,isnon-significant. Whereas the main effect of job type on Indigenous resilience F (1,198) =.42, p<.01 significant .where as the main effect of job type on Life orientation F (1,198) = .48, p=<.01, is significant. The main effect of job type on Job satisfaction F (1,198) = 17.84, p=<.01, is significant. Further analysis indicated that the main effect of job type (emergency services,fire fighter) rescue workers λ (4,198) =.12, p=<.000 which is significant.


This study is conducted to explore the determinants of jobs satisfaction among rescue workers. The study also intended to see the role of psychological well-being, resilience and life orientation in job satisfactions. A positive relationship exist resilience and job satisfaction showing the resilient workers have a specific pattern of solving problems thus creating optimal conditions for job [6-11].

Analysis here showed that a positive relationship exists between life orientation and job satisfaction. Positive orientation gives strength to fight with challenging circumstances. In a religious society like ours the Allah’s will is our priority and helping those in need is taken as a pride. Life values and value orientations that create positive relationship with job satisfaction. Pessimism helps to judge situation critically but if we take their judgments as decision in every situation, it becomes a habit and makes it difficult to take positive perception of difficult situation. Self-esteem and optimism is significantly positively associated with job satisfaction. The result of the present study also illustrated a positive relationship between psychological wellbeing and job satisfaction. Existence of the protector effect of job satisfaction for health, happiness, subjective well-being and self-esteem, are positively associated with each other. Job satisfaction could potentially lead to improvements in levels of health, happiness, subjective well-being and workers' self-esteem, all of which are factors that can potentially improve organizational performance. The study also considered its limitation job satisfaction could potentially lead to improvements in levels of health, happiness, subjective well-being and workers' self-esteem, all of which are factors that can potentially improve organizational performance. The present study found that life orientation is significant stronger predictor of the job satisfaction, while psychological well-being is significant moderate predictors. Social support, resilience and job satisfaction has positive relationship, the trait of optimism and job satisfaction go hand in hand. Positive approach leads to higher resilience, which predicts better psychological wellbeing leading to job satisfaction.


The study was conducted to see the relation between Job satisfaction, Life orientation, Indigenous resilience and Psychological Wellbeing among Rescue Workers. Result of present study showed that a significant positive relationship exist in resilience and job satisfaction. Positive relationship among life orientation and job satisfaction was also analyzed. Significant positive relationship between psychological wellbeing and job fulfillment. Life orientation is significant strong predictor of the job satisfaction, while psychological well-being is significant moderate predictors.


The strength of the study was inclusion of fire fighters and emergency worker among whole rescue time. These two groups of the population have to face serious and tough situations like burnouts and accidents. Their working involve very pathetic conditions involve very pathetic conditions and circumstances. Their attitude toward life and opinion is much important in understanding the constructs like resilience, psychological wellbeing and job satisfactions compared to other rescue workers.


For future studies the following suggestions should be kept in mind

1. The sample size and area should be greater than before.

2. All workers in rescue team should be given chance to participate in the study.

3. The tools should be free of cultural biasness.

4. The extended qualitative study should be followed.

5. The use of research design may be repeated measure to gauge better responses.


With reference to practical perspective the findings of present study will help rescue 1122 to make interventions associated to health related (e.g., mental health) domain which has been rarely considered before. The findings can provide organizations to develop psycho education programs and workshops in relation to resilience, life orientation and optimism to cope effectively with stressful incidents. The outcome of this study would help to understand the nerve and changing life orientations of rescue workers. The findings of the study would be useful in development of strategies to reduce the stress among workers and promote resilience. The outcomes of the study also can be used to design activities that can enhance the job satisfaction. More and more the study finding can be practically beneficial and advantageous for the clinical psychologist and health promoting agencies in development of projects and plans to enhance quality of life and coping among rescue workers.


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Citation: Tolessa M (2022) Determinants of Job Satisfaction in Rescue Workers 11 22 in Addiction. J Addict Res Ther 13: 475. DOI: 10.4172/2155-6105.100475

Copyright: © 2022 Tolessa M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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