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Routing Life Paths of Juvenile Delinquency for Entering into the Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre (RJVTC)
ISSN: 2471-9846

Journal of Community & Public Health Nursing
Open Access

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  • Research Article   
  • J Comm Pub Health Nursing 6: 258, Vol 6(6)

Routing Life Paths of Juvenile Delinquency for Entering into the Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre (RJVTC)

Toansakul Tony Santiboon1*, Jirawon Tanwattanakul2, Nilawan Chantapreeda2 and Saranya T Tienprasert2
1Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education Center (SMEC), Faculty of Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia
2Department of the Child Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Khon kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand
*Corresponding Author: Toansakul Tony Santiboon, Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education Center (SMEC), Faculty of Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA 6102, Australia, Tel: +66 (0)8 6636 8528, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Aug 12, 2020 / Accepted Date: Dec 03, 2020 / Published Date: Dec 10, 2020

Abstract

Background: Globalization with internet, online media, drug, games, online gambling, and sex adolescent are the cases’ installation problems of juvenile offenses that effects and conditional behaviors of juvenile delinquency to their routing life paths for entering the Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Center (RJVTC) were assessed.

Aim: To assess the parents’ and juveniles’ perception of their routing life paths of juvenile delinquency for entering into the Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre (RJVTC) in the Upper RJVTC Northeastern Region of Thailand.

Methods: To adminiter with a sample of 100 juveniles; 93 males, and 7 females whose age between 15-18 years old at the Khon Kaen RJVTC Office 4 were selected. The Juvenile Delinquency Questionnaire A (IDIQ-A) and the IDIQ-B were in-depth interviewed to juveniles and their parents on 7 topics, similarly. The majority of cases offense for considering classification was educated at lower secondary education, unemployed, separated to stay from their parents (64%).

Results: Males used the victims of the Amphetamine-related offense, to have recidivism offenses’ cases. Divorce and child custody are supported by the new juvenile’s family regarding minor’s protection. During the intermediate stage, juveniles learn about relevant advanced techniques and practice to improve their skills, vocational training.

Conclusion: Juveniles are required to attend academic class in order to widen their academic knowledge and undergo corrective treatment and rehabilitative programs as mentioned in individual plans. Suggestions that, Thai children are intelligent and emotions to normal range up after they receive forgiveness.

Keywords: Juveniles; Routing life paths; Juvenile delinquency; Vocational training centre; Criminology problems.

Introduction

Background

Often referred to as ‘the Land of Smiles’, Thailand is renowned for the welcoming and warm disposition of its culture and people. Rice plantations and ornate temples are interspersed in and around busy cosmopolitan cities, reflecting the diversity of landscapes and lifestyles. Being a historically autonomous Asian kingdom, Thailand is significantly influenced by its traditions. Buddhism and the monarchy have historically been seen as sources of order and stability in society and continue to act as symbols of unity for the Thai people. Many Thai people have embraced progressive ideas as their country have globalized. This is reflected in the country’s capital, Bangkok, which is a vibrant cosmopolitan city containing a melting pot of traditional influences and contemporary attitudes.

Characteristics of raising children of Thai families

In Thailand, familial words are often used for other close members of the community and are used to indicate both closeness and respect. The general structure of Thai families is patriarchal, with the household deferring to the oldest living man. Often, several generations will live under the same roof, and grandparents, aunts and older siblings will help raise a child. Moreover, a pregnant mother often moves back to her mother's house or invites the future grandmothers to live with them. There is a strong emphasis on familial connections in Thailand and career paths are often determined by a parent's business connections. Nonetheless, the younger generations are quite liberal in their practices and may live with their partner prior to being formally married [1].

Children in Thailand

Children are taught from an early age to be independent, selfreliant and show respect for others. Young children are pampered and spoiled. Middle-class kids often attend a lot of after school classes and they are under a lot of pressure to do well on tests. Obesity among children who spend time is in front of the TV, playing video games, and watching cartoons. The Child and Youth Protection Act protecting young people from abuse and exploitation and providing guidelines for disciplining juvenile delinquents went into effect. The law includes the rule that requires parents and guardians to take full responsibility for the behavior and welfare of their children. Parents can be punished for abusing their children; failing to protect their children from abuse by others, or failing to curb their children drug and alcohol abuse and participation in the crime. The legislation was passed partly in response to the rising juvenile crime and drug abuse rates.

Problem’s children in Thailand

Methamphetamines are a serious problem in Thailand and many crimes have been blamed on the drug. Two-thirds of all urban crimes and one-third of all traffic accidents are connected with the drug. It provides jobs for the gangster, dealers, and corrupt police and has been called “the greatest threat to the nation since Communism” [2]. Every year, approximately two million people under age 18 are arrested and 100,000 are held in residential placement facilities.

Many juvenile offenders experience multiple challenges including mental health and substance abuse issues and learning disabilities, and have a history of poverty, trauma, abuse, and/or neglect [3]. According to the Department of Juvenile Observation and Protection’s statistics, the number of juvenile delinquents (7 to 18 years old) who were arrested by the police and sent to the Juvenile Observation and Protection Centers across the country increased from 29,915 in 2003 to 51,128 in 2007, an increase of 70.91% in the space of 10 years.

However, the number of juvenile offenders in 2007 (51,128) is only 0.45% of the total national juvenile population of 11,233,070 in 2008 (15 to 18 years old) [4]. Most of them have an education that ended between the seventh and ninth-grade levels. A large number of them are from separated families and lived with their single parents [5].

Why are Thai’s children changed into the juvenile offense?

Unfortunately, most of the peer groups’ influence is assumed negative. In addition, the juveniles might be tempted by the changing materialistic values concomitant with economic development from the practical perspective policies are approached on these assumptions. However, the approach of the juvenile system in Thailand assumes that no single factor alone can be identified as responsible for the causation of juvenile delinquency and that factors are conditions to be considered. Previous researches reported that which affirm that most juveniles, who were found guilty by the Central Juvenile and Family Court and were sentenced to attend a program at a training school for boys who were going on their study in the elementary school completely, were involved with drugs and their broken families. They committed but associated friends and associated victims do have a relationship with the incident shown in figure.

The research was interviewed with drug users aged between 17 and 23 who stated that the most common characteristics of drug abusers were broken families and suffered from low self-esteem. Youths took methamphetamines so they could feel more relaxed and relieved of their troubles. Similarly, researchers organized by the Foundation for Child Development found that some school students used drugs and had to find money to afford the drugs that they used. Moreover, children were also introduced to the business by adults who saw the loophole in the law because of the light punishment for children who commit such offences [6].

Routing life paths of juvenile delinquency for Thai’s children

Today juvenile delinquency is a major problem in both developed and developing countries. Juvenile delinquency refers to the behavior of non-adults which violates the rules and regulations set by the government or society. Juvenile delinquency, also known as "juvenile offending", is the act of participating in unlawful behavior as minors [7]. Most legal systems prescribe specific procedures for dealing with juveniles, such as juvenile detention centers and courts, although some scholars have concluded this may reflect more aggressive criminal justice and zero-tolerance policies rather than changes in youth behavior [8]. Juvenile crimes can range from status offenses underage smoking/drinking to property crimes and violent crimes.

What is a turning point for Thai’s children changes?

Thailand has a relatively high crime rate compared to other countries in Asia. Thais are generally law-abiding people but there is a lot of drug abuse in the country, and going hand in hand with that are thefts and petty crime, and on occasion some serious crimes. Also, be aware that organized crime and a variety of unsavory characters are involved in gambling and sex industries. Snatch and run thieves on motor scooters operate throughout places. By some estimates, the underground economy of drugs, gambling, prostitution, protection, and human trafficking is a third of the size of the legitimate economy. Northeast Thailand has a long tradition of gangsters and thugs enforcing the will of corrupt politicians the businessmen are stolen [2].

Why does Thailand have a relatively high juvenile crime rate?

Thailand has a relatively high juvenile crime rate. There are problems with drug and alcohol abuse, lawlessness and antisocial behavior. According to the Department of Juvenile Observation and Protection’s statistics, the number of juvenile delinquents (7 to 18 years old) who were arrested by the police and sent to the Juvenile Observation and Protection Centers across the country increased from 29,915 in 2013 to 51,128 in 20017, an increase of 70.91% in the space of 10 years. However, the number of juvenile offenders in 2017 (51,128) is only 0.45% of the total national juvenile population of 11,233,070 in 2088 (Department of Provincial Administration, 2018).

A reported research study from the Juvenile Observation and Protection Department, Ministry of Justice, 2014, a large number of juvenile offenders are from separated families and lived with their single parents. The interrelationship of these factors is, on the surface, self-evident. Economic pressures create problematic situations in the family and these situations impact family relations, which can result in pushing juveniles under the influence of their peer groups. Peer groups then create their own subculture, which can have positive or negative influences on the juveniles. Unfortunately, most of the peer groups’ influence is assumed negative.

Juvenile critical criminology in Thailand

Juvenile delinquency has also been increasing in recent years [9]. In November 2016, more than 75,557 thefts and other property crimes in the fiscal year, 10.5 percent higher than the previous year were reported. Violent crime was up 8.6 percent during the same period (Fuller, 2015). Crime statistics from the Royal Thai Police (RTP) show a statistically negligible increase of 1.9 percent over the same period, with 920 additional crimes reported after an overall decline since 2009 [10]. Augmenting the crime prevention efforts of the RTP, there are an estimated 3,000-4,000 security companies in Thailand [11] (Table 1 and Figure 1).

Accounting offenses Years
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Accounting total of  offenses arrested 35,049 34,276 36,763 36,537 33,121
Accounting offenses that repeat the offense 5,559 4,125 6,849 7,490 6,302
Percentage of cases that are offenses 15.86 12.03 18.63 20.50 19.03

Table 1: The amount and percentage of cases of juveniles who are wrongly committed when compared to the case that has been committed and prosecuted by the Bureau of Observation of the country from 2010-2014.

community-public-health-nursing-crime-levels

Figure 1: Representative photomicrograph of histopathological features in pulmonary necropsies.

The Justice Ministry's Juvenile Observation and Protection Department says the number of young offenders increased by 41.3% from 1997 (30,668 cases) to 2007 (51,128 cases). Of these, 13% were committed by repeat offenders. However, the number of reported cases decreased from 2008 to 2010, when there were 44,057 cases. Most incidents involved drugs, followed by property theft or damage. According to the department, the number of children arrested for drug offences accounted for 33.25% of all drug crimes last year, up from 21% in 2010. Worryingly, the number of young people charged with possession or use of firearms and explosives has increased steadily, from 933 cases in 2001 to 2,889 in 2010.

In the research study, focused on the routing life paths of juvenile delinquency for entering into the juvenile observation and protection training center, which the determinations’ effects as: characteristically juvenile family, raising them by their family, friends’ groups, characters of their surrounding societal groups, and background of the juveniles who commit crimes before they are judged for entering into the juvenile observation and protection training center: a case study in the Khon Kaen Provincial Juvenile Offenders, Thailand.

Methods

Research on the qualitative method with In-depth interview questions into juveniles and their parents were designed. Guarding the rights of co-researchers who are the interviewers and observers at the Khon Kaen Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre 4 to get the data of the juveniles’ status of their routing life paths of juvenile delinquency for entering into the Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre (RJVTC): A Case Study in the Khon Kaen Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre 4, Department of Juvenile Observation and Protection, Ministry of Justice Thailand. The privacy policy of the Department of Juvenile Observation and Protection (2016) was to benefit from maintaining juvenile children’s privacy. The parents have the right to choose to use or share the information, directly. These persons may choose not to receive any information or general other media.

Research Objectives

1. To investigate and examine the background of the juveniles’ family data of their parents’ characteristics, distinguishing quality, behaviors, and emotions, and relationships between family’s memberships of the juveniles.

2. To interview the juveniles’ perceptions of their one's own behaviors, both proud and regretful of their behaviors that they act that were conditions the juveniles’ problems of their offenses.

3. To describe the cases of the violence and a serious offense of their routing life paths of juvenile delinquency for entering into the RJVTC.

Research Procedures

Step I: Background of the Khon Kaen Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre 4, an independent organization under Juvenile Observation and Protection, Ministry of Justice Thailand. Training for children and youth who have a court judgment or order to receive training under pastoral care, which is in the jurisdiction as announced by the Justice Minister including 9 provinces: Khon Kaen, Maha Sarakham, Udon Thani, Roi Et, Nong Khai, Kalasin, Sakon Nakhon, Nong Bua Lam Phu, and Bueng Kan Provinces.

Step II: To investigate the accounting the percentage of juvenile offenders of Thailand according to age range, age, gender, percentage of juvenile offenders according to the age range in 2018 that reported in Table 2.

Age Sex Total Percentage
Male Female
0-2 years old 1,006,999 951 951,764 1,958,763 9.22
3-5 years old 1,164,940 1,099,965 2,264,905 10.67
6-12 years old 2,818,208 2,663,094 5,481,302 25.82
13-17 years old 2,065,373 1,960,584 4,025,957 18.97
18-25 years old 3,815,408 3,681,046 7,496,454 35.32

Table 2: Accounting percentage of juveniles’ committed crimes of Thailand according to age range, age, male, female, total, percentage of population according to age range in 2014.

Focused on Khon Kaen Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre 4 (KKRJVTC4), there are the accounting juvenile offenders and percentage of Juvenile Cases Handled by all on 56,537 children from 9 provinces in the Northeastern of Thailand (34,108 juvenile males, and 2,429 juvenile females) between in 2014-2018 (Figure 2).

community-public-health-nursing-rehabilitation

Figure 2: Representative photomicrograph of histopathological features in pulmonary necropsies.

At this time there are the 77-Observation and Protection Centers in each province to observe, search for juvenile’s profile and background of his/her life and other related information. If the Court orders juvenile to be trained in Observation and Protection, the Observation and Protection will be responsible for supervising and providing him/ her treatment programs in 19 Vocational Training Centers throughout the country (Figure 3).

community-public-health-juvenile-vocational

Figure 3: Representative photomicrograph of histopathological features in pulmonary necropsies.

Step III: Using the In-depth Interview for the Routing Life Paths of Juvenile Delinquency Questionnaire A

The In-depth Interview for the Routing Life Paths of Juvenile Delinquency Questionnaire A (IDIQ-A) has interviewed the juveniles at the KKRJVTC4 by researcher team and volunteer researches on juvenile’s parent structure, the background of juveniles, information about treatment for juveniles of the KKRJVTC4 center staff was administered.

Step IV: Using the In-depth Interview for the Routing Life Paths of Juvenile Delinquency Questionnaire B

The In-depth Interview for the Routing Life Paths of Juvenile Delinquency Questionnaire B (IDIQ-B) was interviewed the parents of the juveniles who were stayed at the KKJOPTC4 by researcher team and volunteer researches on juvenile’s family, characterization of their parents, and relationships between the juveniles and their parents were designed.

Step V: Designing the description to informants.

The Description of Informant was the investigating significant data of the routing life paths of juvenile delinquency for entering into the regional juvenile vocational training center with an oral interview from the juveniles and their parents.

Step VI: Using the information provider's consent document.

The Information Provider's Consent Document was the information provider's consent document, to understand and behave as the research team conducted in-depth interviews with accurate information credible and correcting research data to the target group through the KKJOPTC4 staff (Table 3).

Unit: Case Years
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Total 12,352 14,695 13,845 14,773 15,530
Hemp 2,068 1,882 1,360 1,279 1,593
Cottage 2,689 3,075 1,888 2,199 2,047
Opium 3 2 6 6 14
Heroin 14 16 29 17 22
Inhalants 164 134 400 56 51
Amphetamine 9,146 9,525 9,525 9,563 10,482
Ecstasy 12 12 3 3 9
ICE - - 796 1,444 1,062
Ketamine 1 1 1 12 18
Veliem - - 1 - -
Morphine 3 2 2 - 2
Cough medicine 17 11 17 36 27
Other chemicals 1 77 1 - -
Glue 15 15 38 77 63
Others 141 324 111 75 155

Table 3: Accounting cases in which children and young people in the drug-related offenses are classified by type of drug from 2010-2014.

Step VII: Using the Certificate from the Ethics Committee of Human Research, Khon Kaen University that based on the rules of the Helsinki Declaration and the Good Clinical Practice Guidelines (ICH GCP) from the Chairman of the Human Research Ethics Committee Khon Kaen University.

Step VIII: Using the Questionnaire on Juvenile Perception

The Questionnaire on Juvenile Perception was assessed for requesting children and youth data collection for administering to conduct the research was allowed.

Research Instruments

The qualitative research method with the In-depth Interview for the Routing Life Paths of Juvenile Delinquency was assessed.

The In-depth Interview for the Routing Life Paths of Juvenile Delinquency Questionnaire A (IDIA-A)

The guidelines of the In-depth Interview Question A (IDIQ-A) consisted of the 7-sub-IDIQ, namely:

Family data (parents)

Family data (parents) which to start building good relationships between interviewers and interviewees. Introduce the purpose of talking and determine the appropriate time to talk together that followed:

Family’s structure

Focused on In-deep interview to juvenile offenses on the age of parents, Education of parents, Occupation of parents, Incomes of parents, Marriage status of parents, accounting of children of parents, and what the job for each person.

Family’s characteristics

Family’s characteristics consisted of the sample questions; Parents’ characteristics, Parents’ behaviors and emotions, Parents’ taking care of their children, Parents’ taking care of their children, Living with his/ her family or others, If he/she stayed with the other family, how about their characteristics, or Supporting his/her family or another family.

Family relationships

Family relationships that consisted of the sample questions; Family harmony, If there is a family’s problem, how to do the family memberships solve for managing problems, are there the co-activities participations?

Juvenile’s data

This sub-question obtained of Background in child age, the interviewer would listen to the history of childhood. Where he/ she lived? Who lives with him/her? Was there someone also living together? How about his/her life? How did she/he be raised? What are the situations? How did that situation feel like that? (Table 2)

Educational background

The juvenile would be talking about his/her education, the classification successfully on writing and reading, Are there the academic problems? If there are problems, how did you solve your problems? Have a sidekick friend? Have sex during the study with friends, different sex or the same sex? Have the opportunity to participate in school activities? Have you ever violated the rules of the school?

The sidekick friend group and the intimate butte group

The questions on this subsection composed of: Did you have the sidekick friend group and the intimate butte group? What did you participate in an activity together? How often the activities of your group?

Self-awareness and self-esteem

In terms of this in-depth interview on juvenile’s self-awareness and self-esteem, they discussed the questions focused on: Do you think you are accepted by a group of friends? What kind of parents do you look at? What is the most acceptable aspect of your parents? How do you think others have a view to you? What do you opinion yourself as a person? What special abilities do you have in you? Do you have anything that you are most proud of yourself about it?

Being treated by the family

This question consisted of: To be showing love from your family? Are your families paying attention to you? Does your family always give special things on important days such as your birthdays? Did you receive a reward when did you make a piece of a good thing for the family? Have you ever done something that makes your family disappointed? How did you consult anyone in your family when you have problems?

Violence against through the juvenile

The research team has prepared the questions for talking in each juvenile, such as: When did you disobey from your parents, and how did your parents respond to you? Was there any use of harsh words to you? Was there any violence against your body? Was there any neglect to ignore you? How did you feel in that situation? Do you feel that parents do not give importance or interest to you? Did you feel that you have been separated from your family? Did you feel that you were unhappy with your family? And what did you do? (Table 3)

Life goals

In terms of the juvenile’ life goals, they would be responses to the questions, such as: Do you have a life goal? How much is your goal of life and how important it is? What goal did you set about the first life goal? How do you think that your goals will be achieved?

The In-depth Interview for the Routing Life Paths of Juvenile Delinquency Questionnaire B (IDIQ-B)

The In-depth Interview for the Routing Life Paths of Juvenile Delinquency Questionnaire A was interviewed the juveniles’ parents who often visit their juvenile at the KKJOPTC4 by the researcher team and volunteer researches on juvenile’s parent structure, the background of juveniles, information about treatment for juveniles of the KKJOPTC4 center staff was selected.

The guidelines of the In-depth Interview Question B (IDIQ-B) consisted of the 7-sub-IDIQ-A, similarly questions.

The sample target group of this research study

Using the Taro Yamane’s Statistically table [12], which was selected for 100 juveniles with a non-specific purposive random sampling technique. Especially, the interviewees have been acquiescence of their self-consent from their family and the caregiver's KKRJVTC4 staff.

Data analysis

Using the video recording data to support the qualitative method was designed with an in-depth interview. Researchers would be recorded and removed the recording data from the recorder, and then prepare the information with the designing research for descriptive to the presentation.

Results

Using the sample size consisted of 100 juveniles that composed of 93 males and 7 females were selected with the Yamane’s Analysis Table (1967) in 2014 (Table 4). Using the Juvenile Delinquency Questionnaire A (IDIQ-A) was interviewed male and female juveniles on 7 topics, the Juvenile Delinquency Questionnaire B (IDIQ-B) was interviewed their parents on 7 topics, similarly. The sample size of the results has found that (Table 3):

Age Male Female Total
Accounting Percentage Accounting Percentage Accounting Percentage
10-14 Years old 27 90.00 3 10.00 30 30.00
15-18 Years old 66 94.28 4 5.72 70 70.00

Table 4: Number and Percentage of Juvenile Cases Handled at the Khon Kaen Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre 4 in 2014, Classified by Age and Gender.

To investigate the juveniles’ family data of their parents’ characteristics, distinguishing quality, behaviors, and emotions, and relationships between family memberships.

Juveniles’ gender

Number and Percentage of Juvenile Cases Handled by the Khon Kaen Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre 4 in 2014, classified by age and gender that reported in Table 4.

Table 4 reported the number of cases of juveniles who were abused and prosecuted the total amount of 100 cases. When considered by age, it was found that the majority of cases offense was over 15 years old but less than 18 years old are 70 cases, and guilty of age was 10-15 years as 30%.

Juveniles’ education

Juveniles’ responses of their interviewees to their educational classification were reported in Table 5.

Classified education Accounting male’s juvenile Percentage Accounting female’s juvenile Percentage
Uneducated 2 2.85 - 0.00
Primary education 14 15.19 1 1.43
Lower education 36 38.81 3 4.28
Upper education 31 32.94 3 4.28
Others 1 0.22 - 0.00

Table 5: Number and Percentage of Juvenile Cases Handled at the Khon Kaen Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre 4 in 2014, Classified by Education.

Table 5 reported the considering classification according to their education, it was found that the majority of cases that have been investigated. The highest amount of the case was a higher percentage of lower secondary education and upper secondary education, respectively.

Juveniles’ occupations

In terms of the background of the juveniles who have been cased handle at the Khon Kaen Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre 4 in 2014, classified by occupations that report in Table 6.

Occupation Accountingjuvenile’s offenses Percentage
Student 31 31.00
Employee 17 17.00
Participating family business 6 6.00
Unemployed 45 45.00
Professional profile 1 1.00
Total 100 100.00

Table 6: Number and Percentage of Juvenile Cases Handled at the Khon Kaen Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre 4 in 2014, classified by occupation.

Table 6 reports the most juvenile offenses who used to have the unemployed professional, Most of all cases, followed by a student/ student, and employee’s cases whose they are the juvenile offenses, respectively. The background of the juveniles who have been cased handle, classified by occupations.

Juveniles’ classified by habitation

Accounting Number and Percentage of Juvenile Cases Handled at the Khon Kaen Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre 4 in 2014, classified by habitation that reported in Table 7.

Juveniles’ classified by habitation Accounting juvenile’s offenses Percentage
Living with parents 36 36.00
Separated Family 64 64.00
Living with father 8 8.00
Living with mother 21 21.00
Living with stepfather 1 1.00
Living with stepmother 1 1.00
Living with spouse 4 4.00
Living with grandparent 7 7.00
Living with relatives 20 20.00
Residing in the premises of work place with employer 1 1.00
Wandering 1 1.00
Living alone 2 2.00
Living with friend 1 1.00
Others 1 1.00

Table 7: Accounting number and percentage of juvenile cases handled at Khon Kaen Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre 4 in 2014, classified by habitation.

Table 7 shows the most juveniles’ cases of offenders who are not staying with parents (64%). Or parents separated more than the offender with the family is the case that the person (36%). An offense that doesn’t coincide with the parents of all cases, as for the case where the offender is living with the family is reported. Considering the number and percentage of cases in which the family has been separated, which is divided into 12 different forms, as shown in Table 7. Especially, their living with mother and their living with relatives indicates that of 41%.

Classified by offense

By the recording data from the research team, in terms of the classified by offense, we have found and summarized in Table 8 are reported.

Offense Category Accounting Juveniles Percentage
Offense about Assets 20 20.00
Offense about Life and Body 10 10.00
Offense about Sexuality 4 4.00
Offense about Against Public Peace, Liberty, Reputation and Public Administration 2 2.00
Offense about Drug 45 45.00
Offenses relating to weapons and explosives 9 5.00
Offense about the others 10 9.00

Table 8: Accounting number and percentage of juvenile cases handled at Khon Kaen Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre 4 in 2014, Classified by Offense.

In the accounting number of offenses’ cases of the juveniles who have abused prosecution at Khon Kaen Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre 4 in 2014, classified by offense, the total amount sampling of 100 cases. When considering according to the base, most cases have been found to be a criminal offense as the offense about drugs, assets, life, and body, and relating to weapons and explosives, respectively. In addition, it is a case that has a basic knowledge base and the body of the different base that reports in Table 8.

Classified by Drug Category

Accounting number and percentage of the juvenile in Drug Cases Handle at the Khon Kaen Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre 4 in 2014, classified by the drug category that reported in Table 9.

Classified by Drug Category Accounting Juveniles Percentage
Marijuana 14 15.00
Mitragyna speciosa 19 19.00
Opium 0 0.00
Heroin 1 1.00
Volatile substance 2 2.00
Amphetamine 60 60.00
Methylenedioxymethan Phetamine (Ecstacy) 1 1.00
Ketamine 1 1.00
Methamphetamine (Ice) 2 3.00
Cough-syrup 0 0.00
Others 1 1.00

Table 9: Accounting number and percentage of juvenile in Drug Cases Handle at Khon Kaen Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre 4 in 2014.

Table 9 shows the number of cases of juveniles who have abused the prosecution in the offense base drugs to blame all maximum cases of Amphetamine. Classified by type of drug found that the majority of cases are Mitragyna Speciosa, and Marijuana, which of all drug cases, followed by drug-related crimes, respectively.

Recidivism Cases

In terms of the recidivism cases of juvenile offenses, Table 9 reported the accounting number and percentage of recidivism cases were compared with the Total Cases Handled at the Khon Kaen Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre 4 in 2014, classified by gender (Table 10).

Gender Accounting number of juveniles’ offenses Percentage
All cases that have been prosecuted Recidivism Case
Male 93 17 18.28
Female 7 1 14.28

Table 10: Percentage of recidivism cases compared with the total cases handled at the Khon Kaen Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre 4 in 2014, classified by gender.

Table 11 shows the offender male is a gender that has Recidivism offenses’ cases more than females of all prosecuted cases.

Age Accounting number of juveniles’ offenses Percentage
All cases that have been prosecuted Recidivism Case
Over than 10-less than 15 years old 27 2 7.41
Over than 15- less than 18 years old 66 16 24.24

Table 11: Comparisons between the juveniles’ recidivism cases at the Khon Kaen Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre 4 in 2014.

Classified by Age: Accounting number and percentage of the juveniles’ recidivism cases compared with the Total Cases Handled at the Khon Kaen Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre 4 in 2014, classified by age with their recidivism cases that reported in Table 11.

Table 11 shows the offenders who are over 15 years old but less than 18 years of age are those who have committed recidivism cases more than those aged over 10 years but not more than 15 years who have been prosecuted in Khon Kaen Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre 4 in 2014.

Classified by offense: Recidivism among juvenile offenders: In terms of the recidivism among juvenile offenders were classified by offenses’ cases that reported in Table 12.

Offense Category Accounting juveniles’ recidivism Percentage
Offense about Assets 30 30.00
Offense about Life and Body 9 9.00
Offense about Sexuality 2 2.00
Offense about Against Public Peace, Liberty, Reputation and Public Administration 2 2.00
Offense about Drug-related offenses 48 48.00
Offenses relating to weapons and explosives 7 7.00
Offense about the others 2 2.00

Table 12: Number and percentage of recidivism among Juvenile Offenders Handled at Khon Kaen Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre 4 in 2014, Classified by Offense.

Table 12 shows the sample size of the juveniles’ offenses cases, which was prosecuted when considering classified by recidivism base on the majority of the most punitive drug of all cases, followed by a case that has a base of property offenses.

A New juvenile’s family case regarding minor’s protection

Accounting number and percentage of Family Civil Cases Concerning the Protection of Juvenile’s Rights of the new juvenile’s family case regarding minor’s protection at Khon Kaen Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre 4 in 2014, classified by activity.

Table 13 shows the number of civil cases (families) that are newly received about the protection of minors are classified by activities, found that the most case is about divorce and the authority to rule the children.

Offense activities Accounting juveniles’ recidivism Percentage
Request to be a child’s authorized person dealing with request for 7 7.00
Legitimating 28 28.00
Guardianship 6 6.00
Cancellation of Guardian power/ Alimony Claim 11 11.00
Guardian Changing 1 1.00
Return of Child 2 2.00
Quasi- incompetent Mother Order 0 0.00
Adoption - Cancellation of Adoption 4 4.00
Divorce, Child Custody 38 38.00
The Court Permission for Marriage Registration 1 1.00
Quasi- incompetent Order 1 1.00
Offense about the others 1 1.00

Table 13: The new juvenile’s family case regarding minor’s protection at Khon Kaen Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre 4 in 2014, classified by activity.

To examine the background of juveniles’ raising of their childhood to their children ages with their surrounding friends, kinfolks, and juveniles’ perceptions of their one's own behaviors, both proud and regretful of their behaviors that they act (Figure 4).

community-public-health-externality

Figure 4: Representative photomicrograph of histopathological features in pulmonary necropsies.

This study revealed that the problem issues of juveniles are body, psycho-emotion, family, friends and intimates, inspiration and life target, society and environment, crime record, background, and education opportunity, deviate behavior and the national education system problems. The crime-influencing factors for juveniles consisted of 4 factors: society factors such as friends, habitats, easy approach to contrabands and vices, etc., economic factors such as over demand for necessities, high living-cost, lack of job opportunity, etc., family factors such as child-bringing-up pattern, family pattern, parent characteristic, etc. and juvenile factors such as gene, maturity, illness, etc., affecting juveniles differently.

Juveniles who are naïve cannot resist the force of their desire inevitably. This reflects that Thai society is now facing the problem of which material weighs more than morality. To solve juvenile problems, there is no ready-made formula. For example, the drug

addict sometimes we need strong and severe law to help in this case. Juveniles have to be modified in their thought and need to change their viewpoints. Buddhism should be involved in activities to share with the community members and to revive the idea of morality for juveniles.

To describe the juveniles’ problems of their offenses that they are caused by violence and had a serious offense until the case to their routing life paths of juvenile delinquency for entering into the Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre.

Thailand has a relatively high juvenile crime rate. There are problems with drug and alcohol abuse, lawlessness and antisocial behavior. Many sources put the ages of the youngest victims of prostitution at 11-15. They enter the flesh trade in the hope of providing financial support to their impoverished families. Social support for women who have been raped or victimized by incest is not widely available. Thai parents teach their girls not to dress improperly, and not to go alone to unfamiliar places in order to avoid being raped. During the intermediate stage, juveniles learn about relevant advanced techniques and practice to improve their skills. Juveniles are required to attend academic class in order to widen their academic knowledge and undergo corrective treatment and rehabilitative programs as mentioned in individual plans are affected the routing life paths of juvenile delinquency for entering into the Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre, which research team to integrate and interview at a Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre as a case study at the Khon Kaen Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre 4, significantly.

Discussion

To integrate the affected the routing life paths of juvenile delinquency for entering into the Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre, which research team to integrate and interview at a Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre as a case study at the Khon Kaen Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre 4 with the qualitative method on in-depth interview technique to the 2-sample size; juveniles and their parents in 7 topics in 2014. Owing to its history and position, subsequently, crime rates, including deviance and crime among children and youth have increased. Juvenile delinquency from 2003 to 2007 exploded, increasing some 70 percent [13].

To integrate the affected the routing life paths of juvenile delinquency for entering into the Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre, which research team to integrate and interview at a Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre as a case study at the Khon Kaen Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre 4 with the qualitative method on in-depth interview technique to the 2-sample size; juveniles and their parents in 7 topics in 2014. Owing to its history and position, subsequently, crime rates, including deviance and crime among children and youth have increased. Juvenile delinquency from 2003 to 2007 exploded, increasing some 70 percent, with both genders reporting large increases, despite the country, moving up world economic rankings [14,15].

Administering the sample size consisted of 100 juveniles that composed of 93 males and 7 females were selected with the Yamane’s Analysis Table (1967) at the KKRJVTC4 in 2014. Using the IDIQ-A was interviewed male and female juveniles on 7 topics, the IDIQ-B was interviewed their parents on 7 topics, similarly. The majority of cases offense was over 15 years old but less than 18 years old. The considering classification according to their education at the level of lower secondary education. Juveniles’ occupations are unemployed. Most juveniles don’t stay with their parents (64%). The criminal offense as the offense about the drug on Amphetamine- related offenses. Male is a gender that has recidivism offenses’ cases whose age is over 15 to less than 18 years old. Divorce and child custody are supported by the new juvenile’s family case regarding minor’s protection. Between 2007 and 2014 the total number of violence victims seeking assistance at the One-Stop Crisis Centre involved children seeking assistance from the center, according to the National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB) [15-22].

Recently, the Act instituting the juvenile and family court and its procedures relating to juvenile and family cases superseded all 13 juvenile court laws and amendments. The new Act extended the court jurisdiction to cover all family matters as provided by the family law, the civil and commercial code. In criminal proceedings and the welfare of juveniles, the law has clearly defined and revised certain provisions to protect the rights of children and young persons. However, the reported from the Information Technology Center, Department of Observation and Protection, Ministry of Education and Youth [23-26] was concluded on the children and young people.

The RJVTC and other government agencies have launched an indepth project to study the motives and behavioural patterns of young offenders, and are training officials to make use of the information. The new system is a tool to help us identify risk factors. We then can implement measures on a case by case basis. Young offenders will be less likely to go out and commit new crimes. The ratio of young offenders from stable and broken families is fairly equal. Many affluent parents fail to keep their children in line, while many children from broken homes find affection and warmth elsewhere.

Conclusion

Overall, Thai families have fewer children. Family style more diverse and more complex, the family is smaller and mostly singlefamily. There is a decrease in marriage statistics to divorce is likely to increase. Social, cultural and environmental changes such as the expansion of urban areas, technology development, differentiation of features based on generation, climate change, natural disasters and new types of accidents, and population migration affecting children and youth development. In children between the ages of 6-12 years of age, it is found that the intellectual development (IQ) of Thai children with intellectual abilities is still below the threshold and emotional intelligence (EQ), Thai children are intelligent, and emotions are in the normal range up.

During the age of 13 to 17 years, which is a period of adolescence, it is found that most of the problems are suicide. The risk of depression in Thai teenagers aged 10-19 years has increased. The most common reason is the use of the internet and online media that are not suitable until there is a problem with the installation of games and online gambling. As for children and youth who need special protection, it is also a group that the state needs to pay more attention to. Especially, the issue of child abuse and children were violent. Because in the past, news about the violence that the child committed and children being violent have significantly are increased.

Some people in a community near that remand home in Khon Kaen say they were living in fear whose village head of Ban None Muang, said robberies are frequent. ''The police and villagers cannot catch them because they sneak back into the home. But they were caught this time (following the rape), so we believe that others from the home had also committed robberies and hurt people.'' In which young offenders have snuck out of remand homes to commit crimes before returning to the centers. Almost two years ago, six young offenders living in a remand home in Khon Kaen province left the home undetected and raped a teenage girl. They were caught before they were able to return to the home. However, apart from a generally bad community environment and troubled families, repeat offenders almost always have a problem with self-control. The remand homes and the training centers need to set up an intensive programmed to build self-discipline to prevent recidivism.

Acknowledgement

This research was partially supported by the National Research Council of Thailand. We thank our colleagues from the Department of Child Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Khon Kaen University that based on the rules of the Helsinki Declaration and the Good Clinical Practice Guidelines (ICH GCP) from the Chairman of the Human Research Ethics Committee Khon Kaen University is research ethics. We would like to thank you for Officials, Trainers, and Teachers at the 4th Khon Kaen Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Center (RJVTC).

References

Citation: Santiboon TT, Tanwattanakul J, Chantapreeda N, Tienprasert ST (2020) Routing Life Paths of Juvenile Delinquency for Entering into the Regional Juvenile Vocational Training Centre (RJVTC). J Comm Pub Health Nursing 6: 258.

Copyright: © 2020 Santiboon TT, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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