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Description of the country: Turkey is considered to be the gateway between Europe and Asia; it is an Eurasian country located on the Mediterranean stretching across the Anatolian peninsula in southwest Asia and the Balkan region of southeastern Europe. It is bordered by the Black Sea, the Marmara Sea, the Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea.
Geography of the country: Turkey is situated in Anatolia (97%) and the Balkans (3%), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria. Anatolia (Turkish: Anadolu) is a large, roughly rectangular peninsula, situated bridge-like between Europe and Asia. The Anatolian part of Turkey accounts for 97% of the country's area. It is also known as Asia Minor, Asiatic Turkey or the Anatolian Plateau. The term Anatolia is most frequently used in specific reference to the large, semiarid central plateau, which is rimmed by hills and mountains that in many places limit access to the fertile, densely settled coastal regions.
Status of economy, research and development: Turkey is among the top seven emerging economies. Price Waterhouse Coopers regards Turkey as a faster-growing market than China and India. A strong and growing economy like this puts upward pressure on property prices. It is mostly cash purchase oriented market. There is a great investment opportunities to be found in Turkey’s coastal resorts. Good rental yields are possible during the holiday season and there is also scope for personal use. “R&D intensity in Turkey has increased progressively from 0.48% in 2000 to 0.84% in 2010. Over this period R&D intensity has experienced an average annual growth rate of 5.8%. If this trend continues Turkey will have an R&D intensity of 1.48% in 2020, a very good achievement although still below the projected European Union average for 2020. Turkish research and innovation are also benefitting from support from the EU budget. The main instrument is the 7th Framework Programme for Research and Development. The total number of participants in the 7th Framework Programme in Turkey is 879 (out of 5 982 applicants), receiving more than EUR 145.1 million. The success rate of participants of 14.7 % is below the EU average success rate of 21.95 %.”1.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2015 Aziz Sancar "for mechanistic studies of DNA repair" The Nobel Prize in Literature 2006 Orhan Pamuk "who in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city has discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures" The first official permission for cadaver studies in Ottomans was given in 1842. Pathology training in medical school was first begun with Ahmet Hilmi Pa?a at the end of the 19th century. Hamdi Suat Aknar (1873–1936) was an eminent scientist and investigator and had published many works in Turkish, German and French. Prof. Muharrem Köksal (1912–2004) graduated from Gülhane Military Medical School in 1938 and completed pathology training at the same School in 1945. He was appointed as an associated professor to the Pathology Department of Ankara University. He went to England and worked about cell culture and mast cell granules. Back to Turkey, he had founded the Pathology Department of Hacettepe University Medical Faculty in 1963. He had been the rector of Ataturk University (Erzurum) for five months in 1964. He had taken an important role in the discipline of pathology during his life and trained so many qualified pathologists. He had written textbooks about oncology and pathology of gastrointestinal system. During the period of last 164 years, the Pathology in Turkey has achieved tremendous qualitative and quantitative revolutions. Turkish pathologists having wide-vision, universal and scientific features on education, research and practical expertise in specific areas have been working in different fields of pathology. An average of 2.8 pathologists worked at the pathology laboratories. A total of 5.500 biopsies and 3.750 cytology specimens were received and 20.000 blocks prepared per year. Pathologists evaluated 1.935 biopsies and 1.400 cytology specimens on average and this is equivalent to 2.718 biopsies per year. Gynecology and general surgery department materials constituted 57 percent of all biopsies. Each technician prepared 6.200 blocks, 11.500 slides and 1.000 immunohistochemistry preparations on average. An average of 3.4 paraffin blocks was prepared for each biopsy. The efficiency was low in 17% of teaching hospitals and 77.8% of non-teaching hospitals. In contrast 62.5% of teaching hospitals had work overload. The majority (70.5%) of the respondents mentioned staff shortage. The yearly gross mortality rate of the total RRT population is 7.6% according to Turkey Pathology journals list.
According to the survey the number we did biopsies per capita annual cytology pathology in Turkey in 2207 is 1500, respectively. This rate is half the average number taken from European Union countries. 1935 biopsies per year per hospital pathologists surveyed in 1400 cytology, 2718 (biopsy and cytology), biopsy equivalent workload is reduced. 4000 biopsy or 6000 cytology for hospitals without training load in the literature (1 biopsy is considered the equivalent of 1.5 cytology) or 600 autopsies are considered equivalent workload, training, half of the rate for hospitals is recommended. Regular haemodialysis is performed in 250 centres nationwide with support from list of Pathology journals Turkey.