Dersleri yüzünden oldukça stresli bir ruh haline sikiş hikayeleri bürünüp özel matematik dersinden önce rahatlayabilmek için amatör pornolar kendisini yatak odasına kapatan genç adam telefonundan porno resimleri açtığı porno filmini keyifle seyir ederek yatağını mobil porno okşar ruh dinlendirici olduğunu iddia ettikleri özel sex resim bir masaj salonunda çalışan genç masör hem sağlık hem de huzur sikiş için gelip masaj yaptıracak olan kadını gördüğünde porn nutku tutulur tüm gün boyu seksi lezbiyenleri sikiş dikizleyerek onları en savunmasız anlarında fotoğraflayan azılı erkek lavaboya geçerek fotoğraflara bakıp koca yarağını keyifle okşamaya başlar
Characterization of Cattle Production Systems in Nyagatare District of Eastern Province, Rwanda | OMICS International| Abstract

Rheology: Open Access
Open Access

Our Group organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)
  • Research Article   
  • Rheol: open access 2017, Vol 1(2): 107

Characterization of Cattle Production Systems in Nyagatare District of Eastern Province, Rwanda

Mazimpaka Eugene*
School of Animal sciences and Veterinary Medicine, , Nyagatare, Rwanda
*Corresponding Author : Mazimpaka Eugene, School of Animal sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Nyagatare, Rwanda, Tel: (+250) 0788494101, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Dec 08, 2016 / Accepted Date: May 22, 2017 / Published Date: May 29, 2017


This study was conducted to characterize the cattle production systems in eastern province of Rwanda using pre-tested questionnaires, interviews as well as focus group discussions in a period of six months, despite all the interventions to improve livestock production in Rwanda, there is limited information/data available on the current status of cattle production systems, up-to-date information on challenges affecting the sector. The respondents were selected by multi-stage sampling technique at sector and cell levels, sample size were 360 farms. The result indicated that majority of farms (98.3%) were private owned by big families (five to seven members) and the majority (53.9%) of the farmers had only primary education. Most respondents 189 (52.6%) were in the age range 41-50 years. Most farms (48.3%) were located near trading centers. The farm size averaged 6.5 ± 0.8 arcs and most farms (64.7%) were fenced. Grazing on fenced farms (76%) was the main rearing system except in Rukomo sector (50%) where zero grazing prevailed. Natural pastures savanna grass land was the main feed resource tethering (9%) and communal grazing had diminished. Napier grass was the main planted forage (93.2%), followed by Chloris gayana (3.1%) and Brachiaria (1.2%). Legumes were rarely (2.5%) reported. Vitamin and salt blocks, hay and crop residues were the predominant supplementary feedstuffs. However maize and rice brans were reported to be the main feedstuffs used in supplementary feeding of lactating cows. Most farmers (89.7%) reported shortage of water as most of the farmers trekked their cattle to the nearest valley dam (59.2%), rivers (21.1%) and a few 6% had water on farms. Trypanosomiasis was most reported animal disease in sectors (Karangazi 85%, Rwemiyaga 82.8%). Tick borne diseases were not common rare (24.7%) while viral and mycoplasma diseases were hardly reported. Other methods of diseases control were vaccination, fencing (27.4%). The reported mean age at first calving (AFC) for Ankole cattle was 40.2 ± 0.3 months, calving interval and had the least mean milk yield of 2.4 ± 0.08 L. Higher calf mortality rate was reported. Majority of farmers (90.8%) never kept any records. Indigenous cattle were predominant (60.6%) followed by cross breed 24.8% and exotics 5.4% and all farmers kept small ruminants (goats, sheep, chicken and pigs). Natural breeding predominant (74.9%). In conclusion the main challenges were diseases, lack of breeding facilities, shortages of feeds, water, inadequate extension services. Farmers should adopt artificial insemination, improved pastures and introduce legumes in dairy nutrition, purchase diary meals and vita-mineral blocks for effective supplementation.

Keywords: Cattle rearing; Feeding; Breeding; Diseases; Records; Rwanda

Citation: Eugene M (2017) Characterization of Cattle Production Systems in Nyagatare District of Eastern Province, Rwanda. Rheol: open access 1: 107.

Copyright: © 2017 Eugene M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language

Post Your Comment Citation
Share This Article
Article Usage
  • Total views: 14053
  • [From(publication date): 0-2017 - Sep 24, 2022]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views: 12905
  • PDF downloads: 1148