Dersleri yüzünden oldukça stresli bir ruh haline sikiş hikayeleri bürünüp özel matematik dersinden önce rahatlayabilmek için amatör pornolar kendisini yatak odasına kapatan genç adam telefonundan porno resimleri açtığı porno filmini keyifle seyir ederek yatağını mobil porno okşar ruh dinlendirici olduğunu iddia ettikleri özel sex resim bir masaj salonunda çalışan genç masör hem sağlık hem de huzur sikiş için gelip masaj yaptıracak olan kadını gördüğünde porn nutku tutulur tüm gün boyu seksi lezbiyenleri sikiş dikizleyerek onları en savunmasız anlarında fotoğraflayan azılı erkek lavaboya geçerek fotoğraflara bakıp koca yarağını keyifle okşamaya başlar
Current Status of Cattle Production System in Nyagatare District-Rwanda | OMICS International| Abstract

Rheology: Open Access
Open Access

Our Group organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)
  • Research Article   
  • Rheol: open access 2017, Vol 1(2): 108

Current Status of Cattle Production System in Nyagatare District-Rwanda

Mazimpaka Eugene1*, Mbuza Francis2, Michael Tukei2, Gatari N Eugene2 and Okwee-Acai James2
1School of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Rwanda, Rwanda
2School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Resources, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Rwanda, Rwanda
*Corresponding Author : Mazimpaka Eugene, School of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Rwanda, Nyagatare Campus P.O. Box 57, Nyagatare, Rwanda, Tel: (+250) 0788494101, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Apr 05, 2017 / Accepted Date: Jun 26, 2017 / Published Date: Jul 03, 2017


A study was conducted to characterize the cattle production systems in Nyagatare District, Eastern Province of Rwanda using pre-tested questionnaires, interviews with key informants as well as focus group discussions in a period of two months. The respondents were selected by multi-stage sampling at Sector and Cell1 levels.

Based on the procedure to determine the overall sample size, the result indicated that the majority (98.3%) of farms were privately owned by big families of five to seven members and most farmers (53.9%) had only primary education. Most respondents (52.6%) were in the age range of 41-50 years and were mainly (48.3%) located within three km from trading centres. The farm size averaged 6.5 ± 0.8 ha and most farms (64.7%) were fenced except in Rukomo Sector (50%) where zero grazing prevailed.

Natural pastures (savanna grass land) were the main feed resource, tethering (9%) and communal grazing had diminished. Vita-mineral and salt blocks supplements, hay and crop residues were the predominant supplementary feed stuffs used except in Karangazi and Rwemiyaga Sectors where only vita-mineral block predominated. However maize and rice brans were reported to be the main feed stuffs used in supplementary feeding of lactating cows. Most farmers (89.7%) reported shortage of water as most of the farmers trekked their cattle to the nearest valley dams (59.2%), rivers (21.1%) and a few 6% had water on farms.

Indigenous cattle were predominant (67.03%) followed by cross-breeds (28.37%) and exotics (4.6%) while all farmers kept small ruminants. Natural breeding predominated (74.9%) and most farms (60.6%) had animal houses most of which were (52.8%) temporary. The reported mean age at first calving (AFC) was highest (40.2 ± 0.33) for Ankole and the lowest (29.1 ± 0.50) months for exotic cattle. Calving interval were lower in local breeds than 65.7 ± 3.0 in exotic. The mean dairy milk yield was lowest for Ankole cattle 2.4 ± 0.08 as compared to the exotics (10.42 ± 0.36) and their crosses (7.2 ± 0.34). The main challenges were diseases, shortage of water and feeds and inadequate extension services same results was reported.

1Sectors and Cells are the third and fourth level administrative subdivision respectively in Rwanda.

Keywords: Cattle rearing; Feeding; Breeding; Diseases, Records; Production; Rwanda

Citation: Eugene M, Francis M, Tukei M, Eugene GN, James OA (2017) Current Status of Cattle Production System in Nyagatare District-Rwanda. Rheol: open access 1: 108.

Copyright: © 2017 Eugene M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language

Post Your Comment Citation
Share This Article
Article Usage
  • Total views: 4240
  • [From(publication date): 0-2017 - Sep 24, 2022]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views: 3611
  • PDF downloads: 629