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Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract Microbes and Microbial Neurotoxins in the Human Central Nervous System (CNS) in Alzheimerand#8217;s Disease (AD) | OMICS International| Abstract
ISSN: 2161-0460

Journal of Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism
Open Access

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  • Short Communication   
  • J Alzheimers Dis Parkinsonism 2017, Vol 7(6): 399
  • DOI: 10.4172/2161-0460.1000399

Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract Microbes and Microbial Neurotoxins in the Human Central Nervous System (CNS) in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)

Yuhai Zhao1,2, Lin Cong1,3, Vivian Jaber1 and Walter J Lukiw1,4,5*
1Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Louisiana State University, Health Sciences Center, New Orleans LA 70112-2272, USA
2Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans LA 70112- 2272, USA
3Department of Neurology, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, China
4Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans LA 70112-2272, USA
5Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans LA 70112-2272, USA
*Corresponding Author : Walter J Lukiw, LSU Neuroscience Center, Louisiana State University, Health Sciences Center 2020 Gravier Street, Suite 904 New Orleans LA 70112-2272, USA, Tel: 504-599-0842, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Nov 03, 2017 / Accepted Date: Nov 09, 2017 / Published Date: Nov 16, 2017

Abstract

Our ongoing appreciation of the magnitude and complexity of the human microbiome has resulted in a reassessment of many fundamental concepts of the contribution of the microbial community to neurological health and disease. The assumption of the privileged immunological and compartmentalized status of the human central nervous system (CNS) has been recently challenged in multiple investigations - particularly because microbial-derived nucleic acid sequences and highly neurotoxic and pro-inflammatory exudates representative of gastrointestinal (GI) tract Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria are showing up within CNS compartments. Unanticipated microbial presence has also recently been discovered in the anatomical regions of the CNS implicated in pro-inflammatory pathological signaling and neuro-immune disruptions that characterize progressive and lethal neurodegenerative diseases of the CNS such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This communication (i) will briefly review some very recent research on the contribution of the GI tract microbiome and microbial neurotoxins to inflammatory neurodegeneration in the CNS with emphasis on AD wherever possible; (ii) will review the evidence that the GI tract microbiome may have an increasing inter-relationship with the CNS via leaky barriers as we age; and (iii) will review recent experimental findings that support the intriguing possibility that the CNS may possess its own microbiome whose basal complexity is in part derived from the GI tract microbiome of the host

Citation: Zhao Y, Cong L, Jaber V, Lukiw WJ (2017) Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract Microbes and Microbial Neurotoxins in the Human Central Nervous System (CNS) in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). J Alzheimers Dis Parkinsonism 7: 399. Doi: 10.4172/2161-0460.1000399

Copyright: © 2017 Zhao Y, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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