Granulomatous Phlebitis of the Hepatic Vein Tributaries after Portal Venous Embolization
Received Date: May 15, 2015 / Accepted Date: Jun 11, 2015 / Published Date: Jun 14, 2015
Background & Aims: Granulomatous phlebitis of hepatic vein is a rare disease and its exact etiopathogenesis remains unknown. Recently, we experienced granulomatous phlebitis of small hepatic veins in a patient who underwent hepatic resection for metastatic liver cancer after preoperative portal venous embolization (PVE).
Methods: We surveyed such phlebitis in the patients who underwent PVE (2008 August – 2014 August). A total of 62 patients underwent PVE followed by hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), peripheral cholangicarcinoma (pCCA), or metastatic liver tumor (MLT) during this period. As a control, 20 cases of surgically resected livers without a history of preoperative PVE for liver tumors of comparable age and sex distribution in recent 2 years in the same hospital, were used.
Results: Granulomatous phlebitis of small hepatic veins was found in 10 patients with a history of PVE (16.1% of 62 cases) but not in control cases. No microbial agents were identified in these granulomatous lesions. Interestingly, the presence of embolic materials containing sponge gel with inflammation and foreign body reaction in the portal veins in the embolized livers were independently associated with granulomatous phlebitis.
Conclusions: It was suggested that sponge gel used for PVE might have be directly or indirectly related to the occurrence of granulomatous phlebitis. This is the first report of granulomatous phlebitis related to PVE.
Keywords: Preoperative portal venous embolism; Granulomatous phlebitis; Sponge gel; Foreign body reaction; Budd-Chiari syndrome; Hepatic vein.
Citation: Kohga A, Kakuda Y, Sugiura T, Okamura Y, Ito T et al. (2015) Granulomatous Phlebitis of the Hepatic Vein Tributaries after Portal Venous Embolization. J Clin Exp Pathol 5:233. Doi: 10.4172/2161-0681.1000233
Copyright: © 2015 Nakanuma Y, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Share This Article
- Total views: 13364
- [From(publication date): 8-2015 - Jun 06, 2020]
- Breakdown by view type
- HTML page views: 9532
- PDF downloads: 3832