Impact of Food Consumption Pattern on the Body Mass Index (BMI) of School Children (5-12 Years) in Selected Motherless and Orphanage Homes in Imo State
Received Date: Dec 24, 2018 / Accepted Date: Mar 04, 2019 / Published Date: Mar 15, 2019
Objectives: The study was conducted to evaluate the impact of food consumption pattern on the body mass index (BMI) of school age children in selected motherless and orphanage homes in Imo State.
Materials and methods: Seven motherless and orphanage homes representing 58% of the government approved homes were drawn from the three geopolitical zones in Imo State. A total of 115 school age children aged 5-12 years (male and female) were selected through a stratified random sampling method. A well-structured and validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to elicit information on the prevailing feeding pattern in the selected homes. Height and weight of the school age children were measured using standard methods. The WHO reference standard was used to classify the BMI of the school children.
Results: It was observed that the frequency and quantities of consuming fresh fruits and vegetables cooked and uncooked (125 ml/50 g) by the children were low compared to can/packed fruit juice/drinks (175 ml). Carbohydrate rich foods such as Gari/fufu, rice, and indomie/spaghetti were found to be frequently consumed by the children in almost all the homes compared to beans. Animal based protein like egg/ meat /smoked fish were found to be consumed often but in small quantity (10 -50 g). The mean BMI of the children ranged from 13.9 - 24.0 kg/m2 (male) and 13.1 -33.0 kg/m2 (female). Prevalence of obesity, overweight and underweight were 4.8%, 33.3% and 38.1%. Overweight was higher among male children (22.2%) and children between 5-8 years (25.3%) while underweight was higher among the female (23.8%) children and children between 9-12 years (31.8%). Weak positive correlation (0.14) was observed between the frequency of food consumption on the body mass index (BMI) of the respondents and weak negative correlation (-0.19) with quantity of consumption of certain foods on the BMI of the respondents.
Conclusion: High rate of overweight and underweight was observed among the school children. Caregivers in motherless and orphanage homes in Imo State need nutrition education.
Keywords: Food frequency questionnaire; Feeding pattern; School age children; Obesity; Underweight; Motherless; Orphanage homes
Citation: Agugo UA, Asinobi CO, Afam-Anene O (2019) Impact of Food Consumption Pattern on the Body Mass Index (BMI) of School Children (5-12 Years) in Selected Motherless and Orphanage Homes in Imo State. J Nutr Sci Res 4: 135.
Copyright: © 2019 Agugo UA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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