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Paraphenylene Diamine Toxicity Epidemiology and Treatment in Rural Regions of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan | OMICS International| Abstract
ISSN: 2476-2067

Toxicology: Open Access
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  • Case Report   
  • Toxicol Open Access,
  • DOI: 10.4172/2476-2067.1000152

Paraphenylene Diamine Toxicity ? Epidemiology and Treatment in Rural Regions of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan

Khalil Ahmad*
Department of Chemistry, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan
*Corresponding Author : Khalil Ahmad, Department of Chemistry, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan, Tel: 03006836573, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Mar 08, 2021 / Accepted Date: Mar 23, 2021 / Published Date: Mar 31, 2021


Aim and objective: The present study focuses on the toxicity of Para Phenylene Diamine (PPD) and case control study having intake of PPD orally. Further epidemiology of the PPD in Bahawalpur region is also discussed briefly.

Study design: Case control study is involved as well as epidemiology of PPD given concisely.

Methodology: It is a case control study. Study was conducted at Accident and Emergency Department Bahawal Victoria Hospital Bahawalpur (A&E-BVH-BWP), Punjab, Pakistan. One female patient taking PPD orally for suicide attempts was admitted in A&E-BVH-BWP. She was conscious having Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 10/15, irritating, feeling trouble in breathing, swollen tongue, edema on neck and face having saturation (SpO2) 72% with normal Blood Pressure (BP) 115/80 mmHg. Furthermore epidemiology of the PPD in the Bahawalpur region was also discussed briefly in which the patients from 2017 January to 2019 December were also discussed.

Results: PPD is applied extensively in quite a lot of industrialized goods, commonly recognized as Kala Pathar which is a type of aromatic amine. In addition PPD is also castoff by women’s and men’s as a hair colorant in addition with Henna Mahanadi (Lawsonia Alba). In 1924 a hair stylist was encountered first time incident of PPD owing acquaintance to PPD comprising hair dyes. In Western Nation States PPD toxicity is infrequent but in India, East Africa and Middle Eastern Nations this poisoning is worsening to a certain extent which is communal at these Republics. In Pakistan as well as in voluminous other States PPD has been turn out to be an incipient and life span threating cradle of poisoning. Angioedema of brain and neckline, soft and sublingual tissues necrosis, Rhabdomyolysis and ARF (Acute Renal Failure) are a number of pathologies which are instigated by PPD intake. The management strategy of PPD noxiousness is quite conventional, take account of tracheostomy and excessive diuresis to avert air route hindrance and respirational/renal failure, for the reason that of unapproachability/ unavailability of an antidote.

Conclusion: Familiar with etiological aspects, clinical sorts and upshots of patients with PPD poisoning are the ambitions of this study. In this study epidemiological of orally PPD assassinating was also deliberated at A&E-BVHBWP rural areas from Jan 2017-Dec 2019. Moreover this is unique study to give details about the mechanism and chemical metabolism as well as supporting treatment of PPD poisoning.

Keywords: PPD; Kala pathar; Suicidal attempts; Tracheostomy; Aniline derivative

Citation: Khalil Ahmad (2021) Paraphenylene Diamine Toxicity – Epidemiology and Treatment in Rural Regions of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan. Toxicol Open Access 7:152. Doi: 10.4172/2476-2067.1000152

Copyright: © 2021 Ahmad K. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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