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Russia is a federal semi-presidential republic and sovereign state in northern Eurasia. Officially Russia is known as Russian federation. By the end of 2015, Russia ranked as the ninth most populous country in the world. The Russian Federation is fundamentally structured as a Multi-party representative democracy, with the federal government composed of three branches namely legislative, executive, judiciary. Being the member of UN Security council, Russia plays a major role in maintaining peace and security. The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), found that Russia was the second biggest exporter of arms.
Since, more than one-eighth of the Earth’s inhabited land area is covered by Russia, it is claimed as the largest country in the world. It shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Agerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea and the maritime borders with japan by the sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. Russia has an extensive coastline of over 37,000 km (22,991 mts) along the Arctic and Pacific Oceans, as well as along the Baltic Sea, Sea of Azov, Black Sea and Caspian Sea. The Siberian rivers Ob, Yenisey, Lena and Amur are among the longest rivers in the world. About 80% of land area is devoted to agriculture in Russia.
By 2015, Russia has the Tenth largest economy by the nominal GDP and has the sixth largest economy by the purchasing power parity (PPP). Russia had the world’s second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction by the end of 1990. Some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world’s first human-made satellite and first man in space have been evidenced during the soviet era. Russia has been comprised of a vast natural resource base of petroleum, deposits of timber, natural gas, coal, ores and mineral resources. Russian agricultural sector accounted for 9% of total employment. Agriculture journals list indicates that the agriculture industry in Russia accounts for about 6% of the total national GDP. Also, agriculture is one of the largest employment providing industries in Russia. Agriculture industry provides employment opportunities to more than 16% of the Russian population.
Russian federation felicitates its citizens with a “medal for work in agriculture” for their achievements in the agriculture stream and for their major contributions towards the development of agro-industrial research and training. Numerous reputed agricultural journals are published from Russia. In the fields of economics, physics and social sciences Russia had the 3 Nobel Laureates. The Russian Mathematical School, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Saint Petersburg State University and Moscow State University were found to be the renowned institutes in Russia. Russia mainly focusses its research work in the field of mining and metallurgy.