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In Africa, the southernmost sovereign state is South Africa. With around 53 million people, it ranked as the 24th most populous nation. It is a multiethnic society comprising of a wide variety of cultures, languages and religions. In order to describe the country’s newly developing multicultural diversity in the wake of segregationist apartheid ideology. About 80% of South Africans are of sub-Saharan African ancestry and the remaining population consists of Africa’s largest communities of European (White), Asian (Indian) and multiracial (coloured) ancestry.
Because, of its widespread of 2,798 kms of coast line of southern Africa converging along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans ,South Africa is positioned as the 25th largest country in the world by land area. This country lies between Latitudes 22? and 35?S, and longitudes 16? and 33?E.It is bounded on the north by the neighboring countries of Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe, and on the east by Mozambique and Swaziland, and surrounding the kingdom of Lesotho. MAfadi in the Drakensberg is the highest peak in South Africa. Grains and cereals are South Africa's most important crops, occupying more than 60 percent of hectare under cultivation.
The economy of South Africa is coined as mixed economy. It has been aligned as the second largest in Africa after Nigeria and 34th largest in the world. It also ranked as the seventh highest per capita income in Africa, in terms of Purchasing Power Parity.IT Has been classified by the World Bank as an upper-middle -income economy. Nevertheless, South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs and maintains significant regional influence. About 2.6% of GDP is contributed to the nation by the South African agricultural industry. The primary agricultural sector contributes about 3% to the country’s gross domestic product (GDP), it represents about 7% of formal employment. If the entire value chain of agriculture is taken into account, its contribution to GDP reaches about 12%.
Max Theiler, Allan McLeod Cormack, Aaron krug and Sydney Brenner are some the Nobel Laureates from South Africa. South African university is the renowned institute in South Africa. Numerous agricultural journals are published from South Africa. By perusing the list of agriculture journals of South Africa, the adoption of the NEPAD-CAADP initiative by African governments is an acknowledgement that agriculture remains the most important sector in the struggle to reduce poverty and hunger. CAADP laid out the African Vision for an agriculture-led growth and development. By the turn of the 22nd Century, African agriculture as demonstrated by the high degree of food insecurity and level of encouraged the CGIAR to set up two Task Forces aimed at studying the rationalization of CGIAR operations across the System starting with sub-Saharan Africa. Science and Technology can provide solutions to the constraints like poor rural infrastructure and extension services, inadequate human capital resources, high market and trade transaction costs, weak producer and market institutions. Depending on the solutions of these constraints, African agriculture can evidence rapid growth in agricultural productivity and income.