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Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, located on the eastern coast of South America, by the Atlantic Ocean. It is the 5th largest country in the world in terms of territorial extension. The name of Brazil is shortened from Terra do Brasil, "land of brazilwood".
Brazil is the largest country in South America and covers nearly half (47%) of the South American continent. It is currently the fifth largest economy in the world, is home to the Amazon Rainforest and is a popular location for tourism. Brazil is also rich in natural resources and active in world issues such as climate change, giving it significance on a worldwide scale.
Brazil's economic and social progress between 2003 and 2014 lifted 29 million people out of poverty, and inequality dropped significantly. The income level of the poorest 40% of the population rose, on average, 7.1% between 2003 and 2014, compared to a 4.4% income growth for the population as a whole. However, the rate of poverty and inequality reduction has been showing signs of stagnation since 2015. Brazil is currently going through a deep recession. The country's growth rate has decelerated steadily since the beginning of this decade, from an average annual growth of 4.5% between 2006 and 2010 to 2.1% between 2011 and 2014. The GDP contracted by 3.8% in 2015.
The country is pioneer in advanced research in Agriculture, Show Engineering and Information Technology, Ecology and the Environment, Nanotechnology and Health.
In Physiology or Medicine, this nation produced 1 Nobel laureate so far. Medawar was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS).With Frank Macfarlane Burnet shared the 1960 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance". Research is funded in Brazil through different developmental systems and institutions, which are linked directly or indirectly to Brazilian ministries. Institutional financing, for example, comes from the National Scientific and Technological Development Fund (FNDCT). Numerous food science journals are published from Brazil with good reputation. Several leading Institution in the country including Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP) and others are spearheading the food related research.