Germany is a European country officially known as Federal Republic of Germany or FRG. Berlin is the capital of Germany and also its largest city. This country is densely populated with about 81.5 million inhabitants and hence it is the most populated country of the European Union. It is ranked as the second most popular migration destination in the world after United States.
It is situated in the west-central part of Europe, a total of 357,021 square kilometers in area that stretches from the Alps, across the North European Plain to the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. It also shares borders with nine European countries, Denmark in the north, Poland and the Czech Republic in the east, Switzerland and Austria in the south, France in the southwest and Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands in the west. Climate is temperate and marine, with cold, cloudy, wet winters and moderate warm summers.
Germany has been now considered as the world's fourth-largest economy by nominal gross domestic product (GDP), as well as the fifth-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). It leads globally in several industrial and technological sectors, becoming the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods. It is a developed country with a very high standard of living having social security, universal health care system, environmental protection, tuition-free university education and flourishing with great artists, philosophers, musicians, sportsmen, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors. Industry-based and financed investments such as Federation of German Industries (BDI) and many others provide more than two thirds of all R&D funding in Germany. Renowned Research institutions in Germany include the Max Planck Society, the Helmholtz Association and the Fraunhofer Society.
Research and development forms an integral part of German’s economy and it has produced many laureates in the field of sciences including physics, chemistry, and physiology or medicine. It has numerous joint programs and research projects involving companies as well as research and research-funding organizations. Organizations and foundations like Fraunhofer Institutes, Food sciences German Federation of Industrial Research Associations, the Helmholtz Association, the Leibniz Association, and the Max Planck society encourage basic research in the natural sciences, life sciences, social sciences, and the humanities. Germany also leads with the Munich Biotech Cluster (M4) having 260 foodscience companies and world-renowned public research institutions, which is considered as the most prominent biotech locations in Europe.