alexa Materials Technology and Orthopedic Surgery: An Indissoluble Union | OMICS International
ISSN: 2153-0777
Journal of Bioengineering and Bioelectronics

Like us on:

Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Materials Technology and Orthopedic Surgery: An Indissoluble Union

Alessandro Geraci*
Orthopaedics unit, San Giacomo Apostolo Hospital, Castelfranco Veneto, Italy
Corresponding Author : Alessandro Geraci
Orthopaedics unit
San Giacomo Apostolo Hospital
Castelfranco Veneto, Italy
Tel: +39-042-373-26-32
E-mail: [email protected]
Received September 26, 2013; Accepted September 26, 2013; Published October 02, 2013
Citation: Geraci A (2013) Materials Technology and Orthopedic Surgery: An Indissoluble Union. J Biochips Tiss Chips 3:e123. doi:10.4172/2153-0777.1000e123
Copyright: © 2013 Geraci A. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Bioengineering and Bioelectronics

Fractures and degenerative diseases of the bone segments are most of the chronic and traumatic disease. These diseases have had a considerable increase in recent years and will have a further growth. The increase in the average age of the patients and the increase in traffic accidents are the primary cause. It is often necessary to perform surgery to repair the bone segment (osteosynthesis) or to replace the degenerate and non-functional joints (prosthesis). The biomaterials used in orthopedic and trauma science are devices that are implanted in the human body allowing you to restore joint function or to heal a fracture. The human body is a living, dynamic, corrosive environment and therefore the engineers have had to evolve their knowledge and their research into materials with mechanical and chemical properties similar to those of human tissues.
Keep in mind three concepts:
1. "Biofunctionality" the ability to play a specific function
2. "Biocompatibility" means the ability of a material to determine a favorable reaction of the host tissue in a specific application.
3. "Bioinert" unable to create adverse reactions in the body
Based on effects on the body: biohazards, bioinert, biodegradable and bioabsorbable materials, derived from biological sources, are characterized.
The metals were the first materials used because it corresponded to certain characteristics: mechanical strength, ease of processing and adaptation, compatibility with new biological environment. They did not activated the immune system and did not induce foreign body reaction, i.e., they were bioinert. Metallic materials most used are: stainless steels (AISI 440, AISI 316L,), cobalt-chromium alloys (Co-Cr- Mo (ASTM F75, Vitallium) and Co-Ni-Cr-Mo (F562), titanium alloys (ASTM F67 e ASTM F136).
Ceramic materials are also used. They are made from a metallic material and a non-metallic. They have good mechanics and tribology, but their synthesis requires high temperatures to achieve high degrees of purity and density. Among the first used ceramic materials are alumina and zirconium oxide.
The polymeric biomaterials have been developed subsequently. They are constituted by the concatenation of small units called monomers, to form long linear chains, branched and cross linked. Some examples of polymeric materials are: polyethylene, acrylic resins, polyurethanes, polypropylene, and polymethylmethacrylate. The polymethylmethacrylate is used as bone cement in the establishment of joint prosthesiss. The polyethylene is used in the coating in the prosthesis. Like all synthetic materials they deform their body when subjected to pressure or wear (abrasion or corrosion). To improve their quality, the polyethylenes are subjected to processes of cross linking and incorporation of carbon fibers.
In recent years researchers have developed materials capable of binding to tissue repair causing or becoming part of them. These materials are so-called "second generation". Among these we should mention: the hydroxyapatite (bioceramics with marked feature of osteoconduction), bioglass in the silicon (which have distinct characteristics osteoinductive), and the second generation of polymeric biomaterials (such as "polyglycolic acid (PGA)", the polylactic acid (PLA), polydioxanone (PDA), the polii-drossibutirrato (PHA) which are used as resorbable screws).
In recent years researchers have developed materials capable of binding to tissue repair causing or becoming part of them. These materials are so-called "second generation".
Among these we should mention: the hydroxyapatite (bioceramics with marked feature of osteoconduction), bioglass in the silicon (which have distinct characteristics osteoinductive), the second generation of polymeric biomaterials (such as l "polyglycolic acid (PGA)", the polylactic acid (PLA), polydioxanone (PDA), the polii-drossibutirrato (PHA) which are used as resorbable screws). Ultimately the development of orthopedic surgery went ahead with the development of materials. The new materials have allowed the creation of means of synthesis, prosthesis, adhesives able to solve operating problems. The technology of materials was ultimately the cornerstone of modern orthopedic surgery.
Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Article Usage

  • Total views: 13018
  • [From(publication date):
    December-2013 - Sep 24, 2020]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 9166
  • PDF downloads : 3852
Top