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1) Description of the country:
South Africa is the southernmost sovereign state in Africa. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures, languages, and religions. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, which is among the highest number of any country in the world. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry.
2) Geography of the country:
South Africa is located at the southernmost region of Africa, with a long coastline that stretches more than 2,500 km (1,553 mi) and along two oceans (the South Atlantic and the Indian). South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world and is comparable in size to Colombia. Excluding the Prince Edward Islands, the country lies between latitudes 22° and 35°S, and longitudes 16° and 33°E. South Africa has a generally temperate climate, due in part to being surrounded by the Atlantic and Indian Oceans on three sides, by its location in the climatically milder Southern Hemisphere and due to the average elevation rising steadily towards the north (towards the equator) and further inland.
3) Status of economy, research and development:
The economy of South Africa is the second-largest in Africa, behind Nigeria. South Africa accounts for 24 percent of Africa's gross domestic product. Research In nephrology is funded primarily by the various University Research Funds the Medical Research Council of South Africa and the Natal kidney Association.
4) Status about the different subjects in which extensive research is going on:
The primary care initiatives are strongly supported by the medical fraternity of South Africa. Primary care guidelines for the management of hypertension have been formulated by the South African Hypertension society. Transplantation has been discussed with the Ministry of Health by National Kidney Foundation, the South African renal Society and South transplantation Society. Future funding of renal therapy, inadequate or no facilities in vast areas of South Africa are the major concerns of research. The new government and medical fraternity of South Africa are facing these challenges and fighting hard to bring an amendment. Dialysis and transplantation including renal therapy are the major topics discussed in the Nephrology Journals of South Africa.