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Assessment of Responsiveness and Transparency: The case of Mekelle Municipality | OMICS International
ISSN: 2169-0170
Journal of Civil & Legal Sciences
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Assessment of Responsiveness and Transparency: The case of Mekelle Municipality

Fitsum Weldu Abrha*

 

Aksum University, Aksum, Tigray, Ethiopia

Corresponding Author:
Fitsum Weldu Abrha
Aksum University, Aksum
Tigray, Ethiopia
Tel: +251 347 753 645
E-mail: [email protected]

Received March 15, 2016; Accepted April 14, 2016; Published April 21, 2016

Citation: Abrha FW (2016) Assessment of Responsiveness and Transparency: The case of Mekelle Municipality. J Civil Legal Sci 5:191. doi:10.4172/2169- 0170.1000191

Copyright: © 2016 Abrha FW. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

 This study has tried to deal with the issue of good governance by taking in to account the decentralization issue and it’s functioning in delivering effective and efficient services. To deal with this study the researcher was incorporated two key indicators of good governance that are transparency and responsiveness to assess the situation of good governance in the city municipality with regard to land administration and urban planning and development. the researcher incorporates these two indicators because, the more the indicators incorporated the more the study becomes shallow so, for in depth study the investigator was incorporated the two indicators and it is also very difficult to address all the elements of good governance in this paper.

Keywords

Assessment; Responsiveness; Transparency; Mekelle Municipality; Good governance

Introduction

Background of the study

The good governance issue was commenced after Cold war as the concern of the development practitioner. In the aid issue “good governance” becomes the most notable paradigm within which to direct all political reform efforts. Aid was used simply as a carrot to assist this objective. The motives were questionable and less transparent. In relation to this as argued, the World Bank had originally go on board upon utilizing the concept of governance as it come to grips with the challenge of why aid is not success full.

Accordingly, it focused inward to the institutions governing the economy and the implementation of structural reform. It found the problem to be Africa’s governance that is the management of a country’s economic and social resource endowments. A synthesis of current definitions provided by donor organizations such as the World Bank, the UNDP, international development agencies and multilateral donors yields a more complex concept of governance. Governance is a complex and holistic system of interactions among structures, traditions, functions (responsibilities), and processes (practices) manifested by three key values of accountability, transparency and participation.

According to the World Bank, good governance shows sound public sector management (efficiency and effectiveness), accountability, exchange and free flow of information (transparency) and provide effective and efficient services to the general public in the given locality. Good governance manifested in a partition of governance in which public capital and problems are managed effectively, efficiently and in response to critical needs and motivations of society and it rely on public participation, accountability and transparency and render the possible and available basic services in effective and efficient manner to the general public. As far as service provision is concerned decentralization as an ingredient of good governance is fundamental for the empowerment of citizens and enhancing the responsiveness and accountability of the state in the delivery of basic services [1]. To mean decentralization make service effective and efficient to the grass root people as far as individuals are get empowered.

In relation to this on his part argued that the rationale behind decentralization (devolution) within the broader umbrella of good governance is to have smart public decisions that reflect local main concern will be attained by being nearest and closest to the community. Accordingly, most African policy-makers and leaders also became more familiar with the governance concept as a result of the debate within the OAU, and the recent AU and the commitments made through the international meetings. They started recognizing more and more that sound governance is critical for economic growth and the welfare and common good of their fellow citizens. This represents a good progress in the direction of greater convergence on good governance issues. And with this decentralization can improve service delivery, primarily by encouraging user participation, facilitating local responsiveness and encouraging accountability as far as it is exemplary ingredient of good governance.

In effect, parallel with African context Ethiopia on her part is beginning to begin implementing the elements (manifestations’) of good governance. The issue of good governance given a due emphasis in Ethiopia in which it promotes decentralized governance which helps to participate (involve) the people at grass root level for effective and efficient service delivery at the lower tiers of government as well. Accordingly, the Ethiopian Government’s good governance agenda presented in the PASDEP is comprehensive and responds to the challenges related to accountability and transparency, participation, legal and judicial reform and public service delivery. The reforms are consistent with the Bank Group’s Good Governance Policy as well as the NEPAD Vision [1]. After PASDEP governance package the GTP governance package on its part take strategic measures and create mechanisms for zero tolerance to corruption in government organizations and public enterprises through improving their working system that increases accountability and transparency for basic service provision like education, health and infrastructure through implementing transparency, modern information technology, accountable to the public and takes measures to ensure proactive and reactive responsiveness.

So, it comes up with its agenda to be achieved in the next five years parallel with MDGS which is actually commenced. In relation to this great move made so far by the government Local level decentralization began at the drafting stage of the 1995 Constitution. At that stage the status and powers of local government was at issue. As a result of this the devolution of power and resources from the federal and regional governments to work as and localities appears to have improved the delivery of basic services such as education, health, roads and telecommunications etc. This is clearly shown in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR) and to some extent in the Oromiya Region. In line with the above remarkable move Federal Ministry of Works and Urban Development (MWUD) has prepared draft legislation for the solidarity of the status of city municipalities and building their capacity. According to WBI cited in Berhanu [2] city governments (local governments) are expected to play critical roles in their respective regions in rendering effective and efficient services in a transparent and responsive manner to the general public. These are governance and management functions.

Inspite of, the efforts made so far in the country many woreda and sub city administrations are simply overwhelmed with the high amounts of responsibilities and tasks they should implement. These are topped by weak access to quality capacity building programs and a general lack of practical tools and procedures such as related to participatory planning, monitoring and evaluation and inexistent coordination and management, that lead to inefficient structures and procedures. By the same token Zemelak asserts “The most serious bottleneck for Ethiopian local government is capacity and local government institutions of the country have high shortage of qualified man power.” Many were as have been witnessing a deficiency in achieving feasible local development and delivering an efficient and effective service for their grass root people and marginalized sections of society [3]. This study has tried to deal with the issue of good governance by taking in to account the decentralization issue and its functioning in delivering effective and efficient services. To deal with this study the researcher was incorporated two key indicators of good governance that are transparency and responsiveness to assess the situation of good governance in the city municipality with regard to land administration and urban planning and development. the researcher incorporates these two indicators because, the more the indicators incorporated the more the study becomes shallow so, for in depth study the investigator was incorporated the two indicators and it is also very difficult to address all the elements of good governance in this paper.

Statement of the problem

Good governance is pivotal for decentralized governance in that it has numerous advantages especially when central governments fail to fulfill extraordinary needs of local community. Local government and communities know about its condition and are responsive to their needs. Decentralized good governance fosters accountability. In accordance with this, it is at the centre of the AU/NEPAD program, is also among the top priorities of the program. Accordingly, with NEPAD’s Democracy and Political Governance Initiative, African leaders committed themselves to create and consolidate basic good governance processes and practices. Ethiopia also made the endeavor for consolidation and upgrading of good governance at both the local, regional and national level especially after the EPRDF government comes to power. Similarly ADB and ADF [1] and further argue that the issue of decentralization is essential for the empowerment of citizens and enhancing the responsiveness and accountability of the state in the delivery of basic services.

And it hoped to bring about harmony and cooperation and it has shifted authority from a central government to lower tiers in a decentralized system of governance [4]. Article 50(4) of the Constitution recommended the regional states to empower local government by allocating service delivery responsibilities to the lower tiers of governments [5]. In effect the Government launched decentralization which is designed to shift decision-making closer to the people at the “grass roots level” and to improve the responsiveness of basic service delivery to the given dwellers’ [6]. As part of the overall governance system of any society, decentralized governance offers important opportunities for enhanced human development. However, if improperly planned or poorly implemented, decentralized good governance can also be a bottle neck that may easily discourage local efforts to enhance human development.

In spite of the endeavours’ made by the government. However, the process of fostering good governance practices at the lower tiers of government has still facing various bottle necks such as capacity and the dominance of local government institutions by the ruling party. So, that, if not thoroughly assessed and possible measures provided, could significantly hamper the effective and efficient service provision and development endeavours’ of the country. This finding is confirmed by Dickovick et al. [4]. Studies conducted by these authors revealed that, the capacity of local government in formulating policies, and implementing strategies and development activities is an essential part of the governance structure at local/regional level. Despite the fact that there is a clear capacity gap in running and managing different responsibilities under the umbrella of decentralized governance. In relation to this regarding to service provision in Ethiopia the major role of the citizens in service delivery seems to be develop a list of needs and then determine needs that can be fulfilled by the community itself by contributing cash/or labor. Most kebeles receive little or nothing of what they request through the planning exercise unless need can be supported by their own contributions which is because of severe capital budget constituents at the local level and when capital budget exists either through federal programs or NGOS the process of prioritizing needs by the Woreda is opaque. In a number of cases the kebelle citizens have themselves taken on the task of building schools, roads, water tanks and other social services. These efforts can be viewed as a failure of the state to provide services forcing the citizens to take on additional role.

With regard to good governance different practitioners’ and researchers so far undertook research in relation to decentralized good governance for instance, kumera under took research on a decentralized governance and service delivery, paper assessed on local good governance emphasized on responsiveness in yem special Woreda But, these papers did not take in to account the manifestations(key indicators)of good governance in decentralized governance and Tamiru assessed only one key indicator of good governance that is responsiveness respectively and Belay [7] undertook research on assessment of Governance and Administration of Urban Land in Abei Adei town assessed good governance only on one public office that is the office of urban land administration and Meskerem on local governance at Woreda level in Ethiopia and did not incorporate indicators of good governance with regard to responsiveness and transparency.

Most researches undertook so far in Ethiopia with regard to good governance in local level did not take in to account the key indicators (manifestations) of good governance. Unlike the above mentioned papers this paper will research on good governance in city administration level since, the practice of good governance is not well researched in region level and with specific regard in the lower tiers of government specifically, in city level and with specific regard to the selected study area of city administration of Mekelle in regard to the selected city Municipality by incorporating the two selected key indicators that are transparency and responsiveness because, in lower governments they are the most challenges and because, the more the indicators incorporated the more the study becomes shallow so for in depth study the two indicators has been incorporated.

Cognizant of this, the researcher motivated to undertake a research which are not taken in to account by the mentioned practionaries and researchers by incorporating the two indicators in the selected city with specific regard to the city municipality and in accordance with the pilot study conducted by the investigator and as the researcher informed from the city Municipality community (service providers) no research had been undertaken so far in relation to Good Governance with the identified key indicators that are responsiveness and transparency in the given city Municipality as well.

Accordingly it needs a thorough and further inquiry because, as many literatures, pointed out the issue of good governance is challenging at lower tiers of government for effective and efficient service provision and the issue and practice of good governance is not well researched at local level. Cognizant of this, the investigator is highly initiated and motivated to undertake a research because of the above mentioned gaps by incorporating the two key indicators that are responsiveness and transparency.

Research questions

1. What are the main factors that determine for the responsiveness and transparency in the offices of urban planning and development to the city dwellers with in the city municipality?

2. What are the main factors that hinder the practice of good governance in the given city municipality with regard to urban planning and development in regard to responsiveness and transparency?

3. What are the possibilities of addressing the obstacles (hindrances) of good governance in the city Municipality in regard to responsiveness and transparency?

4. What are the key lessons to be drawn from the good governance practices in the given city Municipality?

Objective of the study

General objective of the study

The general objective of the study is to assess the practice of good governance in Mekelle city Municipality.

Specific objective of the study

•To scrutinize the transparency and responsiveness of the city municipality in the office of Urban planning and development.

•To identify the main bottle necks of good governance of the city Municipality with regard to responsiveness and transparency.

•To identify and indicate the possibilities of addressing the obstacles of good governance in the given city administration with regard the city Municipality.

•To identify some of the main lessons to be drawn from the good governance practices in the city Municipality.

Scope and limitation of the study

Scope of the study

Governance issue is a comprehensive issue because, it applied at every levels local, national, international, regional, and soon. Theoretically, the scope of the research was delimited to good governance in decentralized city administration at local (city) level by incorporating the two key dimensions (indicators) of good governance that are transparency and responsiveness. Geographically, the research was confined to city Municipality of Mekelle under city administration of Mekelle town in Tigray regional state in the Ayder and Hawelti sub cites. Methodologically, the study drawn sample respondents from Ayder and Hawelti subcities residents and purposive sampling has been used. The time coverage of the study delimited to at least to one year.

Limitations of the study

Theoretically, the study have a limitation in that good governance agenda is so wide which cannot be fully addressed by taking only two key indicators that are responsiveness and transparency .Geographically, the study have a limitation in that it was confined to the city of Mekelle with regard to the city municipality so, it has not include the surrounding areas and villages and also it is difficult to generalize (conclude) the issue and practice of good governance by taking only two sub cities from the seven sub cities of the city administration to the whole population of the given city dwellers’.

Methodologically since the study has drawn sample respondents from Ayder and Hawelti residents on behalf of the other sub cities so, the collected information from them didn’t reflected the exact idea of entire city residents of the other sub cities of the study area. And the study has not used census approach of sample selection in that every one might not a chance to be selected. Because of the above mentioned limitations the investigation might not reflected the overall situation (clear image) of the overall governance agenda and its implementation in the given city

Significance of the study

The investigation of good governance may have significance for the given sub cities, for city administrators, for the community, for the academic community as well as for other researchers. The study may give an insight to the extent to which good governance has developed and the hindrances’ that the city faces in the path towards promoting of good governance in the office of land administration and urban planning and development in the realm of service delivery and to deal with the bottle necks of good governance for the betterment of the general public. For city administrators and the respective service providers the study may have a significance in that it may help them to recognize and implement the policies and strategies’ devised by the policy makers from top in which it helps them to provide (deliver) services effectively and efficiently in a transparent and responsive manner to the community at large.

For the community the study may have significance in that it helps them to recognize and assure their rights of getting efficient and effective services from their respective administrators so as to articulate their interests. For, the academic community the study may have significance or it may provide an insight to undertake an academic research on good governance since, Good Governance agenda is difficult to be addressed in this paper and as it is also problematic at the lower tiers of government. So, the paper may provide a direction for further inquiry. It may also encourages practitioners and academicians as well as other researchers with the similar field of study to conduct different research activities related to the topic by taking in to account the prevalent gaps.

Review of Related Literature

Attributes (key indicators) of Good Governance. Good governance is not merely for a type of government and its connected political values but also for certain kinds of additional elements. It implies government that is democratically organized within a democratic political culture and with efficient administrative organizations, plus the right policies, particularly in the economic sphere. At the constitutional level good governance needs changes that will reinforce the accountability of political leaders to the people, guarantee the respect for human rights, strengthen the rule of law and decentralize political authority. At another level which is administratively, good governance needs accountable and transparent public administration; and effective public management, including a capacity to devise good policies as well as to implement them. Without good governance the grass root development cannot be imagined. Corruptions, financial trouble, human rights violations, lack of accountability all the elements of good governance need at local level public institution.

“Good governance” is a normative conception of the values according to which the act of governance is realized, and the method by which groups of social actors interact in a certain social context. Even if good governance is subjected to different conceptualization there are common principles for good governance. The most often enlisted principles include: participation, rule of law, transparency of decision making or openness, accountability, predictability or coherence, and effectiveness. The international donor community generally shares the view that these principles stand at the foundation of sustainable development.

According to UNESCFAP (nd) good governance has 8 major characteristics. It is participatory, consensus oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, effective and efficient, equitable and inclusive and follows the rule of law. It assures that corruption is decreased the views of minorities are taken into account and that the voices of the most vulnerable in society are heard in decision-making. It is also responsive to the present and future needs of society. They will be presented as follows:-

Participation

Within the issue of participation as one part and parcel of good governance argue that Participation by both men and women is a key cornerstone of good governance. Participation could be either direct or through legitimate intermediate institutions or representatives. Participation refers to the involvement of citizens in the development and governing process. Citizens could participate either directly or through legitimate institutions or representatives to effect decisions regarding their country’s affairs. Participation by all citizens is pivotal to the existence of good governance. All men and women should have a say in decision 45 making, either directly or through lawful intermediate institutions that stand for their wellbeing. Such wide participation is built on freedom of association and speech, as well as capabilities to participate constructively. Participatory governance offers citizens with access not only to information, but also to decision-making and power to influence public choices.

It means access not only for a fortunate few, but for all, including those who are still too often excluded from the benefits of development, particularly the poor, the marginalized, and vulnerable groups. At the national level, it means increasing the very concept of governance; know that protection of the public interest is a responsibility not only of the government and the political process, but also of civil society and the private sector. The constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE) provides the legal basis for assuring Citizens’ Voice and participation in socio-economic and political processes. Legal and institutional planning’s aimed at ensuring interface between the governments and Ethiopians are stipulated in the Constitution. Article 43 (sub-article 2) clarify that citizens have the right to participate in countrywide development and in particular, to be consulted with respect to policies and projects affecting their society. Parallel with the above he also argued that Participation by all citizens is pivotal to the existence of good governance. For instance, among the 529 total seats of the House of Peoples’ Representatives, 116 (22%) are occupied by women representatives .Considering the roughly one to one male to female ratio in Ethiopia, a 22% female participation in the legislation process is a good start and it must be encouraged . In contrast, as of 2007, the 110th United States Congress is comprised of 84% male, and 16% female. According to Kaufmann participation needs that all people have a say in decision making, either directly or through legitimate institutions that represent their interests. They have also added that participation involves consultation, cooperation and collaboration, representativeness and interactive approaches to decision making, and is built on freedom of association and speech. By the same token Blair [8] argues that participation creates representation, which is a key indicator of empowerment, and therefore the extents to which people have a say on issues that concern their future.

Rule of law

Good governance requires fair legal frameworks that are enforced impartially. It also requires full protection of human rights, particularly those of minorities. Impartial enforcement of laws requires an independent judiciary and an impartial and incorruptible police force.

Good governance needs fair legal frameworks that are enforced impartially. It also needs full protection of human rights, particularly those of minorities and marginalized sections of societies. Impartial enforcement of laws requires an independent judiciary and an impartial and incorruptible police force. The notion of rule of law shows that everything is done consistently with the law, and that there exists a judicial system capable of assuring the impartiality of the law as well as the protection of the rights and freedoms of individuals and groups .The author defined the term rule of law as the capacity of legal rules, standards or principles to direct people in the conduct of their affairs, stability, the supremacy of legal authority for both citizens and government actors; and the availability of impartial institutions of enforcement.

Transparency

Article 8 of the Constitution asserts that sovereignty resides in nations, nationalities and peoples of Ethiopia who exercise this power through their elected representatives. Citizens are also legally authorized to recall their elected representatives if the latter’s behaviors’ and actions are contrary to their responsibilities and mandates [5]. To UNESCFAP (nd) transparency means that decisions taken and their enforcement are done in a manner that follows rules and regulations. It also means that information is freely available and directly accessible to those who will be affected by such decisions and their enforcement. It also means that enough information is provided and that it is provided in easily understandable forms and media.

According to Azfar [9] access to information on the actions and performance of government is critical for the promotion of government accountability. Unless the public knows what goods and services are provided by the government, how well they are provided, who the beneficiaries are, and how much they cost, it cannot demand effective government. Also, the central government needs to be able to monitor the performance of lower level governments, and there are good reasons for the latter to be fully informed about the actions of the central government. Access to information, by allowing the public to monitor government’s subsequent actions, also enhances the impact of participation by creating a pressure on the government to take into account citizen preferences in decision-making.

Transparency stipulates that decisions made by governmental and non-governmental authorities are openly communicated, and their enforcement is conducted in accordance with established rules and regulations. It also requires that information is freely available and easily accessible to those who will be affected by such decisions and their enforcement. In short, transparency refers to the availability of information to the general public and clarity about government rules, regulations, and decisions. The result: inhibition of corruption among public officials and reduction of distrust among their constituents (UNESCFAP, nd).

Attempting to implement accountability in the absence of transparency is the same as to shooting in the dark. By the same token argue transparency implies to the availability of information to the general public and clarity about government rules, regulations and decisions. Thus, it both harmonizes and reinforces predictability. The difficulty with ensuring transparency is that only the initiator of information may know about it, and may bound access to it.

Transparency refers to the accessibility of information to the general public and clarity about government rules, regulations, and decisions. The result: inhibition of corruption among public officials and reduction of distrust among their constituents. Adhering to the principles of transparency is no simple task, especially in developing countries such as Ethiopia. Moreover, in this era of national and international unrest, some information could be classified as sensitive, and may not be distributed to the public. However, the Ethiopian government seems to have recognized the importance of transparency for economic development, and has been doing its best to achieve that goal. The Constitution a covenant of governance is the guiding document for decision-making and enforcement. In regard to transparency the experience in Ethiopia reveal problems of constraints on information access for service delivery, depicted as institutional and technical challenges. The rules of the public’s appointment of authorities are still weak and rudimentary. The governance deficit has implications for the quality and reliability of information. Specifically, because information about government policies, behaviour, and performance is typically generated in political environments that are polarized and contested, assures that information is not for narrow legitimation and propagandist ends is a central mystery in fostering good governance. While there are many similarities in the patterns of governance, the Ethiopian and Kenyan examples disclose sharp and distinctive modes of transitions to participatory, transparent, and responsive political systems. These transitions are central to the debates on decentralization, privatization, and public-private sector partnership.

Transparency and accountability are interrelated and mutually reinforcing concepts. Without transparency, that is, free access to timely and dependable information on decisions and performance, it would be complicated to identify public sector entities to account. Unless there is accountability, that is, mechanisms to report on the usage of public resources and consequences for failing to meet stated performance objectives, transparency would be of small value. The prevalence of both conditions is a precondition to effective, efficient and equitable management in public institution.

To UN transparent governance implies openness of the governance system through clear processes and procedures enabling good access by citizens to public information. High levels of transparency stimulate awareness of responsibilities and standards in public service through information sharing, which ultimately ensures the accountability of individuals and organizations that handle resources and/or hold public office for their performance. Transparency, or “open 49 government” which provides citizens full information on what is being decided and how, is a kind of public accountability mechanism which only functions in systems which already have the basics of democratic accountability in place [10].

Responsiveness

Good governance needs that institutions and processes try to serve all stakeholders within a reasonable timeframe. Responsiveness implies the receptiveness of institutions to the demands of their stakeholders. Institutions should be approachable to their clients and serve them within a reasonable time frame.

By the same token to Responsiveness’ implies to how the state and other public institutions perform in responding to the requirements and rights of citizens. For instance, how does the state act in service provision? Are people treated equally? Or are certain needs prioritized over others? And responsiveness aims for governments to do the right things for the people and the services to be delivered must be consistent with the citizen’s desires and needs.

Good governance is credited for responsiveness to the preferences of the large population mainly the poor and vulnerable sections who normally benefit from pro-poor policies and programmes. Equity and social justice are also pivotal principles under a democratic/well governed government. Responsiveness can be measured in terms of public official’s ability to listen the demands and voice of citizens, easy access of complaints for service users and whom to contact with the suggestion to change, the ability of councils decision to reflect the demands of public etc. It seems that the responsiveness of the local government is supposed by citizens to be particularly significant .The supposed responsiveness to complaints, for example, was largely interrelated with satisfaction levels. It also seems that those who are most likely to visit the local government are people of higher income, men, and older adults. Encourage the establishment of systems to collect and respond to complaints. These can be as simple as a sign on a door or the placement of a box that is clearly labeled “Complaints or Suggestions.” Complaints should be logged and responded to in a timely manner. To be sure these are actions that have been undertaken as part of the civil service reform programme across the nation. As a result of the implementation of the package in urban and rural woredas and kebeles, Information, Customer and Complaint Handling Desks were created and staffed. The information desk is meant to deliver timely information to the society while Complaint Handling Desk is to actively listen and solve public Complaints. Therefore, woreda and kebele administration need to strengthen their system and communicate to the citizens about the available opportunities. Steps might also be taken to encourage marginalized groups (youth, poor people, and women) to visit.

Consensus oriented

There are several performers and as many perspectives in a given community. Good governance needs mediation of the diverse interests in society to reach a broad consensus in society on what is in the best interest of the whole community and how this can be achieved. It also requires a broad and long-term perspective on what is needed for sustainable human development and how to achieve the goals of such development. This can only result from an understanding of the historical, cultural and social contexts of a given society or community. There are several actors and as many viewpoints in a given society. Good governance requires accommodation of the different interests in society to bring consent in society on what is in the best interest of the whole community and how this can be attained. It also requires a broad and long-term perspective on what is needed for sustainable human development and how to achieve the goals of such development. This can only result from an understanding of the historical, cultural and social contexts of a given society or community.

A study conducted shows that Good governance needs mediation of the different preferences in a given community to come up with a broad consensus on what is in the best interest of the whole community and how this can be attained. It needs a broad and long-term standpoint on what is needed for sustainable human development and how to attain the goals of such development. This can only results from an understanding of the historical, cultural and social situations of a given society or community. To UNDP (nd) Good 51 governance mediates conflicting interests to reach a broad consensus on what is in the best interest of the group, and where possible, on policies and procedures.

Broad-based-consensus-building processes, communities need to build up their own visions of good governance and intended to define which of the main features are most vital to them and what the best balance between the state, the market and society is for them. The bottlenecks for all communities is to create a system of governance that promotes, supports and sustains human development to realize the highest potential of everyone and the wellbeing of all, thus eliminating poverty and all other forms of exclusion.

Equity and inclusiveness

A society’s wellbeing rely on ensuring that all its members feel that they have a stake in it and do not feel excluded from the majority of society. This requires all groups, but particularly the most marginalized, have opportunities to improve or maintain their wellbeing. All men and women have chance to get better or maintain their well-being.

Effectiveness and efficiency

Good governance means that processes and institutions produce results that meet the needs of society while making the best use of resources at their disposal. The concept of efficiency in the context of good governance also covers the sustainable use of natural resources and the protection of the environment.

Accountability

Accountability refers to the imperative to make public officials responsible for government performance as well as responsive to the body from which they get their authority. Accountability is a key requirement of good governance. Not solely governmental institutions but also the private sector and civil society organizations must be answerable to the public and to their institutional stakeholders.

Accountability holds public officials responsible for government performance and makes it essential for them to be responsive to the needs of the community.

At the local level, it refers to the suppleness of structures that would allow recipients to enhance program/project design and implementation. It also entails the establishment of criteria to measure the performance of local officials and the creation of supervision mechanisms to assure that standards are met.

Less clear but equally destructive, governments that are not accountable to their communities and with incompetent bureaucracies and weak institutions are unwilling or unable to devise and implement pro-growth and pro-poor policies [11].

Who is accountable to whom varies depending on whether decisions or actions taken are internal or external to an organization or institution. In general an organization or an institution is accountable to those who will be affected by its decisions or actions. Accountability cannot be enforced without transparency and the rule of law. Accountability is responsible for the very existence of good governance. Governmental institutions as well as the private sector and civil society organizations must be accountable to their institutional stake-holders in particular and to the public in general. Overall, an organization or an institution is accountable to those who will be directly affected by its decisions.

Similarly a study conducted shows that State‘s accountability to its citizens is a key aspect of improving governance. And accordingly, governments that can be held accountable for their actions are more likely to respond to the needs and demands of their citizens. Improving the way that citizens are empowered and able to demand accountability from their governments is an all-around and context-dependent process. There is no single way by which all citizens can make their voices heard to their governments and hold them to account. Nor is there any single method by which governments take voices of citizens into the policymaking and implementation processes.

Accountability is one of the precondition of good governance. It shows holding elected or appointed officials charged with a public mandate responsible and answerable for their actions, activities and decisions. It is the role of civil society to hold those in public office accountable.

Accountability seeks to know who is responsible for what and what kind of behaviour is illegal. Similarly evidence gained by Earle [12] shows that the delivery of services needs strong relationships of accountability between the actors in the service delivery plan. The provision of public services involves at least two relationships of accountability. Clients as citizens have to hold policy makers or politicians accountable for allocating resources towards these services and policy makers in return need to hold the service providers accountable for delivering the service.

In Ethiopian decentralization, it can be differentiated accountability between layers of government and between the government and the people. At the different tiers in Ethiopia, dual accountability exists. “Upward accountability” to higher tiers of government and “downward accountability” to people. Concerning the latter, the formal declaration of accountability is prevailed in the Constitution, which decides that sovereignty prevails in the nations, nationalities, and people of Ethiopia which is expressed through their elected representatives (Article 8). Similarly, the Constitution stipulates in Article 12 that the conduct of affairs of government shall be transparent, any public official is accountable for any malfunction in official duties, and in case of loss of confidence the people may recall an elected representative [5]. The Constitution therefore offers for the fundamental lawful foundation for political accountability [4].

Strategic vision

Leaders and the public have a broad and long-term perspective on good governance and human development, along with a sense of what is needed for such development. There is also an understanding of the historical, cultural and social difficulties in which that perspective is grounded.

There are complexities’ between mentioned elements of good governance. In many ways some factors can be seen as preconditions of others, but also as important effects in the other direction. For examples, accountability is often connected to participation, and also to the expectedness and transparency. At the same time, predictability requires transparency, because it may difficult to ensure truthfulness without information about how equally situated individuals/communities have been treated [13].

Methodology of the Study

Site selection and description of the study area

Mekelle is one of the cities of Ethiopia found in the Northern part, in the Tigray National Regional State. Historically, Emperor Yohannis IV founded Mekelle as a capital of Ethiopian Emperor about 110 years ago. Mekelle is the sixth largest city in Ethiopia Since the country’s independence, Mekelle has been among the fastest growing regions of Ethiopia. The population has increased from 20,000 in the early 1970s to 215,546 by 2007 census. The city lies in the Ethiopian highlands 780 km north of Addis Ababa. The city has a temperate climate and low malaria prevalence due to its elevation (over 2,200 meters). The rationale behind the selection of the study area is that the city is the capital city of Tigray region because relatively there are more service users comparing to the other cities of the regional state. With regard to the sample selection two sub cities selected. In selection of the two sub cities things that are taken in to account are service users and access to land.

Data type and sources

Both qualitative and quantitative data type were used .Primary and secondary sources were used for the successful accomplishment of this study. Primary data was collected from administrators (service providers), service users from the office of land administration and urban planning and development of city Municipality in the selected sub cities and respective ketenas. The service users were individuals who were users from the respective offices. Different reports, such government reports and report of the office of urban planning and development , U.N. 57 agencies , international organizations reports, research papers, articles etc., were used as secondary data for the accomplishment of the research because, secondary hand information enabled to have a clear understanding of theoretical and conceptual frame work for the literature which helps to investigate the problem in the given area as well as the social, economic, historical and physical back ground of the area in depth to investigate and understand the attitudes and behaviours of the city dwellers towards that of the situation of good governance and its practicality in the given city administration.

Research strategy and design

The research strategies that were used in this study were mixed methods approach. Qualitative method was used to a larger degree, but to reduce the limitation of single method both qualitative and quantitative were given due attention. The investigator has applied qualitative research method because, qualitative research was helped the researcher to interpret and better understand (conceptualize) the reality of a situation and the implications of quantitative data.

Qualitative research method was used to answer questions about the nature of phenomenon, often with a purpose of describing and understanding the phenomenon from the participant’s points of view. Since the research was conducted on the perception of the respondents on the situation (practice) of good governance and its practice in the given decentralized city administration, qualitative research method was important because, it seeks a better understanding of situations.

Sampling design, procedures and frame

The researcher has used purposive and convenience sampling to select authorized persons (service providers) and town dwellers (ordinary individuals) respectively. The main reason for using of convenience sampling was because of the sampling procedure of obtaining the people or units were most conveniently available. The offices of land administration and urban planning and development were selected purposively. Because, these public institutions provide services to a large number of users.

The researcher has used about 153 respondents for his study. Yamane formula cited in Mora and Kloet was used to determine the sample size and eight percent (8%) level of significance 58 (precision) was used because, it is reasonable and acceptable for social science to use level of significance from one percent (1%) up to ten percent (10%) and it also founds to be appropriate.

Data collection methods and instruments

The target populations of this study were authorized persons (service providers) and town dwellers (service users). The primary data was gathered by using semi structured questionnaires and interview techniques.

Questionnaires: The researcher has used semi structured questionnaires to collect data about respondents’ perception, feeling, attitude etc. A questionnaire was also administered in local languages for the sake of clarity and to be easily understandable by the respondents. Questionnaire was distributed to the service users from the selected sub cities and the respective ketenas. The data was collected by three enumerators who were unemployed university graduated students.

Interview: There are different types of interview. The researcher has used semi structured interview to get different ideas and not to restrict the views of the participants. The researcher conducted an interview with about 6 individuals. The main interviewees of the research were the city Municipality administrator and administrators from the two selected sub cities and their respective Ketenas (Tabias).Therefore the researcher produced an interview schedule.

Data processing and analysis

The data that was collected through interview and questionnaires’ were analyzed qualitatively. Qualitative approach was employed to grasp the attitude of respondents regarding the level and degree of transparency and responsiveness of the service providers in good governance processes and practices. In presenting and analyzing the data the researcher attempted to organize the data by descriptive statics like tabulation. The qualitative data was analyzed by making use of descriptions and interpretations. The researcher used SPSS (statistical package for social science). And others such as open ended interview were analyzed qualitatively. A descriptive analysis method was used in the process of renovating the raw data in to a form that would make them easy to understand, interpret, and manipulate the data to provide descriptive information. Tabulation was also widely used to present the quantitative data.

Results and Discusssion

Responsiveness and Transparency in local government, case of urban planning and development office, Mekelle Municipality.

Transparency in urban planning and development office in the realm of service provision providing effective and efficient service to the community in a clear way is one manifestation of transparency and generally that of good governance. It helps for the service users to have a confidence on the service providers and in its part it plays a significant role in fostering good governance. As it was shown in the above table question was raised to see whether the urban planning and development office distribute land for investment and urbanization in a clear way for the general public.

Perception of respondents on clearity, transparency and openness of the office to the public item Description Frequency Percent. The urban planning and development office distribute land for investment and urbanization in a clear way for the general. Accordingly, an estimate of 84(54.9%) respondents responded that the office never provides service in a clear way and around 49(32.2%) replied that the office provides service in a clear way on rare occasions on the other hand about 10(6.5%) responded that the office provides service in a clear way some times while an estimate of 5(3.3%) replied that the office provides service in a clear way always. From this survey one can understand that the overwhelming majority of respondents were in between never and rarely. So, the office of urban development fails to ensure clearness in distributing land for investment and urbanization in a clear way for the general public. This becomes one main obstacle in ensuring good governance in the given public office because; as a result of lack of clearness the office fails to be transparent.

In contrary to the result of the analysis according to Katsriku each public service agency must be clear about the purpose of the organization, objectives and its intended services to the citizens and make sure that all employees in the organization understand them. This will ensure that citizens receive high quality service and that the taxpayer receives value for money in service delivery.

Transparency manifested in accessibility of information to the general public and clarity about government rules, regulations, and decisions. The office need to have clarity during distribution of land whether for investment and urbanization to the general public. Such as clarity of land delivery processes and urban planning providing ownership and development for investment and urbanization are critical for improving transparency in land administration institutions. In short, transparency refers to the availability of information to the general public and clarity about government rules, regulations, and decisions. The second question requested the respondents to respond whether the urban planning and development office provides services to all through a transparent manner.

As it can be shown in the survey about 90(58.8%) respondents’ replied the office never becomes transparent on its service delivery and around 34(22.2%) replied that the office is transparent on rare occasions and on the other hand an estimate of 16(10.5%) replied that sometimes the office is transparent in service delivery to the clients while around 6(3.9%) respondents responded that the office is transparent always. Larger sizes of respondents lay in between never and rarely. From this the researcher perceives that the public institution lags behind from being transparent to the community. A lack of transparency paves the way for the spread of and opportunities of government corruption and decreases public sector efficiency.

In this regard the respondents said that the office do not try to take enough measures to improve transparency in general. They said that the office sometimes take measures for example by punishing the service providers (civil servants) those who fail to be transparent for the service users. But they did not satisfied by the punishments taken by the respective authorities. Because, the measures taken were not on time. They add that the service providers used to say we will take measures for every failure happened because of the service providers but, the reality in the ground is quite different to mean they (respective authorities) do not take satisfactory measures to punish for those who do not carry out their responsibilities accordingly.

According to the key informants of interview there is a problem of serving the community in a transparent manner this problem mainly prevailed in the office of urban planning. Again they said that the prime core function of the office is making the community (service users) aware of the rules, regulation and proclamations because this move is help full in undertaking the workings in a transparent manner. But this does not mean that the problem of transparency is totally ensured. Still this problem prevailed in the office. Additionally key informants also added that there were problems of transparency which is mainly related to rent seeking behaviour from the side of the employees.

In contrary to this survey a study undertaken by UN reveals that transparent governance implies openness of the governance system through clear processes and procedures enabling good access by citizens to public information. High levels of transparency stimulate awareness of responsibilities and standards in public service through information sharing, which ultimately ensures the accountability of individuals and organizations that handle resources and/or hold public office for their performance. Transparency refers how accessible, open and clear are informations, processes, institutional rules and decisions to community members and the general public [14].

Studies conducted by these authors revealed that in regard to transparency the experience in Ethiopia reveal problems of constraints on information access for service delivery, depicted as institutional and technical challenges. The rules of the public’s appointment of authorities are still weak and rudimentary. The governance deficit has implications for the quality and reliability of information. Specifically, because information about government policies, behaviour, and performance is typically generated in political environments that are polarized and contested, assures that information is not for narrow legitimation and propagandist ends is a central mystery in fostering good governance.

In contrary to this result of the analysis UNHSP found that transparency has been acknowledged as an instrument of guaranteeing an informed citizenry and for following a collective vision by exposing the public space by making every stakeholder to remain aware of achievements and setbacks of the government and thus it limits corruption, which tends to flourish in closed systems that are ridden with ambiguity and open behaviour. In contrary to this result of the analysis to UNESCAP, transparency means that decisions taken and their enforcement are done in a manner that follows rules and regulations.

It also means that information is freely available and directly accessible to those who will be affected by such decisions and their enforcement. It also means that enough information is provided and that it is provided in easily understandable forms and media. The third question requested the respondents to respond whether the office is open to its decisions on urban planning and its development (expansion).Accordingly, around 77(5.3%) replied that the office is open to its decisions on the other hand an estimate of 76(5.3%) responded that the office is not open to its decisions.

In connection to this question which was asked in the fourth question that is if your answer for question no 12 is yes, decisions on around 10(6.5%) respondents reported that the office is open in its decision in registering excess land on the other hand an estimate of 28(18.3%) reported that there is openness in providing ownership data for the public and about 7(4.6%) replied that there is openness in giving site plans to the service users and around 24(15.7%) reported that the office is open on providing data on un allocated land to the public and about 5(3.3%) replied that the office is open in giving clearance to the public and around 3(2%) respond that the public institution is open to the community in opening new files to the service users. From this the researcher understands that the office is relatively open as the survey reflected.

According to key informants of interview the office is open to its decisions and whenever the service users who did not satisfied by the decisions made they complain and appeal to higher body. But there are service users who complain by disregarding the rules which are expected from them. Others said there are reluctant service providers who refrain from being open to their decisions. Other informants said there is a system of passing decisions and making them open to the public through committee, cabinet members and process council.

In relation to this survey to UN (2005) transparent governance implies openness of the governance system through clear processes and procedures enabling good access by citizens to public information. High levels of transparency stimulate awareness of responsibilities and standards in public service through information sharing, which ultimately ensures the accountability of individuals and organizations that handle resources and/or hold public office for their performance.

“Open government” provides citizens full information on what is being decided and how, is a kind of public accountability mechanism which only functions in systems which already have the basics of democratic accountability in place.

Perception of respondents on the level of corruption:

Corruption emanates from lack of transparent authorities. The more individuals become non-transparent the more they tend to be corruptors. With regard to this respondents’ requested about their perception on the situation of corruption in the study area. An estimate of 105(68.6%) respondents replied that the office is not free from rent seeking. There is a wide spread of rent seekers. Around 28(18.3%) replied that there is rent seeking behaviour from the side of service providers on rare occasions .On the other hand about 11(7.2%) responded that they cannot decide whether there are rent seekers in the office or not .On the other hand an estimate of 4(2.6%) replied that there are rent seekers some times while an estimate of 5(3.3%) replied that always there are rent seekers in the office. From this one can understand that the extent of rent seeking is rampant. Moreover, respondents had been said that rent seeking activities had been the main challenges in the urban planning and development in the given sub cities. They had been said major areas of corruption are manifested in the form of nepotism, delaying decisions, and unequal treatment among service users, nepotism, bribes and prioritizing self-advantage. Additionally, the respondents have also said there are problems of corruption and partiality in the administration of the land. There are service providers, who put to those they have friendship and family tie to the front and tried make them to get the services first. The services favor the people who have tie with them.

There is also partiality in delivering service to the community. People who have tie and familiarity with the service providers will be beneficial from the service provision but those who have not relationship; they will not get land and other services timely and appropriately In addition to this respondents said that whenever you want to get something, you have to do corruption which is given in the form of money which emanated from not knowing the right of getting efficient and efficient service from the respective service providers.

Therefore, the affluent can afford to pay it not the poor Therefore; this implies that there was unfair treatment of individuals. The affluent have been assuring their right of getting service by buying it which mean committing illegal act that corruption. This shows us that transparency is getting compromised because of the prevalence of rent seekers in the given public office.

According to the key informants of interview in the office of urban planning previously corruption was rampant but now a day there is a sign of decrement but it does not mean that it was totally alleviated. The problem is related with unequal treatment of service users, delaying (unproper usage of time), not serving the clients properly and at the right time and absence of employees during working hours and the strive for fighting it is not such satisfactory. Rent seeking behaviour from the side of engineers is rampant. In the office of land administration there is problem of rent seeking behaviour related to land but the problem is not rampant like that in the previous time because of the strive made to minimize it.

According to FAO cited in Palmer corruption hits those who lack the ability to pay the bribes to get the services and legal protection, particularly to defend their rights to land. Weak governance may promote inequality as the rich are able to benefit from the opportunities. Self-enrichment while the poor may lose their rights to land and common property resources such as communal grazing areas and forests. The poor who cannot afford the formal legal services are doomed to rely on informal and extra-legal arrangements, becoming effectively excluded from the protection and reach of the law. Politically the consequences can be severe, as grievances may fuel violent conflict. The result is inhibition of corruption among public officials and reduction of distrust among their constituents’.

According to transparency international Corruption is defined as the abuse of delegated power and resource for personal advantage. Corruption vitiates and obliterates the key ingredients of social capital, without which the machinery of governance cannot function.

Anello [15] further argued that it has become a moral imperative that all sectors of society should address and resolve the problem of corruption. There is a variation in the level of Corruption individually and institutionally.

Perception of respondents on the Information service /desk, publicizing information and means of publicizing (accessing) information:

The prevalence of information desk is critical in a given office to prevail. Because, service users can easily and quickly get the respective service provider (authorized) person and it helps them to finish their task quickly. The prevalence of information desk in a given office is one manifestation of transparency as far as information dissemination is the concern of transparency. Respondents were asked whether the office has an information service/desk. As it was shown in the above table an estimate of 97(63.4%) respondents replied the office has an information desk and as per personal observation conducted the office has information desk while around 56(36.6%) replied that the office has not information desk. From this one can understand that the office has an information desk for the service users.

This finding is confirmed by Arko et al. [14] studies conducted by these authors revealed that access to information also depends on the availability of mechanism for recording and maintaining information. Thus institutions should put in place instruments that help for maintaining urban planning and development information and information-desks where users from this public institution can easily interact with institutions.

Information can be made access to the public using various mechanisms .As it was shown in the above table the second question was asked to the respondents. Accordingly, an estimate of 105(68.6%) replied that the public institution has a means of publicizing information. In relation to this question again respondents were also asked what kind of system the office has to publicize the information. Accordingly around 26(17%) of the respondents said that the office publicize the information through hard copy to the service users and about 12(7.8%) respondents’ said that the office is publicizing information through on line and on the other hand an estimate of 45(29.4%) replied that the office is publicizing information via meeting while 19(12.4%) responded that the office is publicizing information in the form of notice board to the clients. From this one can understand that the most common mechanisms uses to publicize information are through conducting meetings and on notice boards.

Around 51(33.3%) however replied that as there is No means of publication information in the office. From this result of the survey as well as the in accordance with the personal observation conducted the office of urban planning and development publicizes information mostly via conducting meetings and notice board. This move helps the clients to be informed about the services that are going to be delivered since information is power.

Perception of respondents on clearness for acquiring services and measures to improve transparency:

Clearness in procedures for acquiring services to the public is critical in improving good governance and particularly transparency .As it can be shown in the table 13 an estimate of 66 (43.1%) respondents replied that the office never makes the procedures clear for acquiring services and on the other hand around 63(41.2%) replied that the offices procedures for acquiring services are clear to all stakeholders on rare occasions and about 8(5.2%) responded that they cannot decide whether procedures for acquiring services are clear to all stakeholders and around 10(6.5%) replied procedures for acquiring services are clear to all stakeholders some times while around6(3.9%) responded that the procedures for acquiring services are always clear. From this survey the researcher understands that the office is lagging behind in making the procedures and process for acquiring services clear to the community. In this regard this situation plays it role in diminishing the strive for improving good governance and in particular reference to transparency in the given public institution. The clarity of procedures in land administration will help clients to easily identify the steps to pass the hierarchies to possess land and this in its part play a great role in minimizing the intense bureaucracies.

Study conducted by the author revealed that citizens in Croatia are less informed about procedures and find procedures too long and too complex for citizens and they recommended publishing of manual that would include all steps needed to perform the registration. Good governance needs that all the actors engaged in the governance process follow well- defined codes of conduct and their public issues are subject to examination by the public under legally predetermined procedures.

Contrary to the result of the analysis UN mentions’ that transparency implies openness of the governance system through clear processes and the procedures enabling good access by citizens to public information and the clarification of the procedures in acquiring the available services to the community.

Arko et al. [14] argues that the process for possessing land need to be via clear rules and regulations and it need to be clear and open to all the concerned service users.

Taking measures when a problem of transparency happens is one manifestation of improving governance in the given office. In the second question respondents requested to know whether the office is trying to take measures to improve transparency in general. Accordingly an estimate of 68(44.4%) reported that the office never takes measures whenever problem of transparency happens and about 61(39.9%) replied the office takes measures on rare occasions when ever problem of transparency happens and around and about 16(10.5%) responded that sometimes the office takes measures and around 3(2%) replied that the office always takes measures whenever problem of transparency happens. Large number of respondents lay in between rarely and never. From this the researcher understands that the office is not (lagged behind) to improve the atmosphere of transparency of the office so, this situation restricts the strive for improving transparency and generally enough governance in the given public office.

In contrary to this finding according to UNESCFAP transparency stipulates that decisions made by governmental and non-governmental authorities are openly communicated, and their enforcement is conducted in accordance with established rules and regulations. It also requires that information is freely available and easily accessible to those who will be affected by such decisions and their enforcement. In short, transparency refers to the availability of information to the general public and clarity about government rules, regulations, and decisions. If this is not the case lack of transparency will result in inhibition of corruption among public officials and reduction of distrust among their constituents.

Perception of respondents on petition (appeal) in decisions made:

Respondents were asked whether there are mechanisms for community members to petition (appeal) against the decision made by the authorities. Regarding mechanisms for community members to petition (appeal) against the decision made by the authorities an estimate of 73(47.7%) respondents replied that there are no mechanisms for community members to petition (appeal) against the decision made by the authorities and about 49(32.%) reported that there are mechanisms for community members to petition on rare occasion on the other hand around 7(4.6%) reported that they can’t decide whether the office has mechanisms to appeal against decisions made or not and about 16(10.5%) reported that sometimes the office has mechanisms for community members to petition on the other hand an around 8(5.2%) responded that in the office always there are mechanisms for community members to petition . From this one can understand that the office lags behind in accepting the petitions’ of the respective service users. From this survey the researcher understands that this situation affects the atmosphere of the strive for ensuring good governance.

According to the key informants of interview in regard to this they said that there is no specified time frame for accepting complaints and help citizens to appeal their concern to the higher body. Other key informants of interview said that there is a specified time frame for service users to present their complaints and appeal to the higher body and there are days which help citizens to present their complaints that are on Monday, Wednesday and Friday but there are times in which citizens are not served in these specified time frame because of unexpected and urgent meetings in the office.

Again according to some informants they said that an effort had been made in accepting complaints and appeal and solving them on time and properly but, there is a problem if the complaints and appeal presented by the service users are to be solved with other stakeholders who are responsible (assigned) for this task which is emanated from a problem of giving timely and proper response to the respective service users.

Responsiveness to complaints, for example, is largely interrelated with satisfaction levels. It also seems that those who are most likely to visit the local government are people of higher income, men, and older adults. Encourage the establishment of systems to collect and respond to complaints. These can be as simple as a sign on a door or the placement of a box that is clearly labeled “Complaints or Suggestions.” Complaints should be logged and responded to in a timely manner.

Perception of respondents on Enforcement of decisions:

The enforcement of decisions in the realm of service provision in any public office need to be in accordance to the established laws, rules as well as regulations because, this is one manifestation of transparent governance in public offices and the established law of the land also says so. In regard to this respondents were asked whether decisions are taken and enforced in accordance with the established rules and regulations given. Accordingly an estimate of 63(41.2%) reported that decisions are enforced accordingly on the other hand around 90(58.8%) replied that decisions are not taken and enforced in accordance with the rules and regulations given. From this one can understand that there is a big problem in enforcing decisions in accordance with the established rules and regulations. Decisions are getting enforced arbitrarily in the given public office.

The respondents said that decisions are made in the wish and willing of the respective authorities not in accordance with the given rules. So in this case the researcher perceives that decisions are made arbitrarly. This situation highly damages the endeavor towards improving good governance (transparency and responsiveness) in the given public office. They added that in the given public offices authorities made decisions based on their interest and not in accordance to the established rules and regulations as well as with the interest of the general public.

Transparency stipulates that decisions made by governmental and non-governmental authorities are openly communicated, and their enforcement is conducted in accordance with established rules and regulations.

Responsiveness in the office of urban planning and development:

Responsiveness aims for governments to do the right things for the people and the services to be delivered must be consistent with the citizens’ preferences and needs. It also implies how the state and other public institutions behave in service provision? Or certain need prioritizes over others. Good governance is credited for responsiveness to the preferences of the large population mainly the poor and vulnerable sections who normally benefit from pro-poor policies and programmes.

Perception of respondents on assessing needs and preferences, considering needs and means of assessing the needs and preferences:

Question was raised to know the perception of respondents on whether the offices assess the needs and preferences of different stake holders. Accordingly 88 (57.5%) of the respondents reported that, the office never assess the needs and preferences of different stakeholders and on the other hand an estimate of 18 (11.8%) responded that the office asses needs and preferences on rare occasion and about 11(7.2%) reported that they can’t decide whether the office assess the needs and preferences of different stake holders or not and an estimate of 2(1.3%) reported the office assess needs and preferences some times while around 34(22.2%) responded that the office assess needs and preferences always. It is critical to know the needs and preferences of the constituents. However, as the result of the survey indicates most of the respondents replied that the office does not assess the needs and preferences. So what we can understand from this is that the office does not know clearly the needs and preferences of the society. If it does not clearly identify these needs and preferences it does not correctly include in to plans and projects.

If the program implementation considers the needs and preferences of the public during project designing and planning. The office does not assess the needs and preferences of the society, these needs and preferences will not take into plans and projects. Hence these plans and projects will not be up on the needs and preferences but the needs of the people participate in planning and in designing projects. The office is lagging behind in improving enough governance by assessing the diverse needs and preferences during project designing and planning. To this end if the needs and preferences of the people do not well assessed and examined the people will not have confidence up on the administration system and participate in the overall governance of land administration. This situation has a serious implication on effective and efficient service provision as well as on local level developments and in general on the effort for improving enough governance.

On the other hand an estimate of 34(22.2%) replied that the office assess the needs and preferences of service users via different mechanisms. Accordingly, from 34(22.2%) respondents an estimate of 12(7.8%) respondents reported that the office asses the needs and preferences of the service users through Meeting and on the other hand about 19(12.4%) replied the office asses the needs through suggestion box and an estimate of 3(2%) reported the office assess the needs through distributing questioner to the clients. From this result of the survey one can understand that most of the time the offices assess needs and preferences of service through the use of suggestion box.

In the third question respondents were asked whether the office considers the needs and preferences of the public during project designing and planning in program implementation sections of the community in project designing and implementing. Accordingly an estimate of 13(8.5%) respondents replied that they strongly agree in that the program implementation includes the needs and desires of different stake holders in project deigning and implementation on the other around 19(12.4%) replied that they agree in that the program implementation includes the needs of the constituents’ and about 46(30.1%) reported that they strongly dis agree in that the program implementation includes the needs and around 53(34.6%) reported that they disagree in that the program implementation includes the needs and an estimate 15(9.8%) replied uncertain about program implementation.

From this one can understand that the office did not takes in consideration the various needs and desires of different sections of society and this was affecting the governance of the office of urban planning and development . Good land administration needs the assessment of needs and preferences of the people and the incorporation of these needs and preferences according to the priority given by the society. If the need and preferences did not incorporated during project designing and planning fruit full results cannot be achieved.

In this regard plans and projects done are not solving the demands of the people because the various needs and preferences of the constituents’ do not well assessed. In every project designing and planning and implementation the needs need to be included and the policies need to be devised and adjusted to the circumstances of the community and every planning and designing need to be pro poor and marginalized sections of the society. But the office lags behind in undertaking its responsiveness in such away.

Good governance is credited for responsiveness to the preferences of the large population mainly the poor and vulnerable sections that normally benefit from pro-poor policies and programmes. Equity and social justice are also pivotal principles under a democratic/well governed government responsiveness can be measured in terms of public officials ability to listen the demands and voice of citizens especially those who are vulnerable and poor, easy access of complaints for service users and whom to contact with the suggestion to change, the ability of councils decision to reflect the demands of the public etc. Responsiveness implies to the method in which decisionmakers– public or private– identifies the needs and preferences replies to the demands of certain groups, such as the poor and the vulnerable sections of society.

Government policy decisions and enforcements should be represent adequate responses to society needs and opportunities as good governance desires the basic needs, interests and the critical purpose that indicates policies, programs and activities of government must represent enough response to the genuine and legitimate needs of the people.

Perception of respondents on the responsiveness of the office:

It seems that the responsiveness of the local government is supposed by citizens to be particularly significant. Respondents were asked to know their perception on the responsiveness of the office to the community. Responsiveness is one critical component of good governance in which without responsiveness ensuring enough governance becomes unthinkable. Respondents rank the level of responsiveness in the given office.

Accordingly an estimate 14(9.2%) sample respondents rated the offices responsiveness as it is excellent and around 9(5.9%) respondents reported that the offices responsiveness is good on the other hand about of 14(9.2%) sample respondents reported that the office is good in manifesting responsiveness and around 35(22.9%) respondents responded that the office is fair in exercising responsiveness and about 53(34.6%) reported that the office is poor in manifesting responsiveness while an estimate of 28(18.3%) respondents replied that the office is very good in terms of responsiveness to the general public. From this survey one can understand that the office is lagging behind in ensuring responsiveness because large size of respondents replied in between very poor and poor. In this regard responsiveness was got compromised in the given public institution.

With regard to this according to the key informants of interview they said that in the office of urban planning and development there is a problem of responsiveness which is manifested by a problem of on time and proper (appropriate) response to the clients. Others said there is a problem in which there were previously unsolved issues and now it creates a big problem in solving them in possible time frame and again they said even if this thing creates problem we are doing our best to deal with the prevailed problems. There is also a problem from the road engineers in giving appropriate and on time response and every time they confront with the respective authorities who provide mater plans to the service users. Responsiveness’ implies to how the state and other public institutions perform in responding to the requirements and rights of citizens. For instance, how does the state act in service provision? Are people treated equally? Or are certain needs prioritized over others?

Responsiveness aims for governments to do the right things for the people and the services to be delivered must be consistent with the citizens’ desires and needs. With regard to responsiveness Tim similarly argued that the closeness of local government to service users means that, provided that they have enough autonomy, they can be more responsive to local needs than central government.

Perceptions of the respondents on the appropriateness:

Giving appropriate responses to the service users is one manifestation of responsiveness in which it plays its role in ensuring and sustaining the atmosphere of good governance and particularly that of responsiveness’. In relation to this respondents asked to know their perception on whether the responses given to the community are appropriate or not.

Accordingly an estimate of 71(46.4%) respondents replied that the office never gives an appropriate response to the constituents’ and around 52(34%) reported that the office gives appropriate response to the community on rare occasions and on the other hand an estimate of 8(5.2%) respondents reported that they can’t decide whether the office gives proper response or not and an estimate of 18(11.8%) sample respondents responded that that sometimes the office gives appropriate response to the clients while around 4(2.6%) respondents’ replied that the office always gives proper responses to the community. From this survey the researcher understands that the office lags behind in giving proper responses to the service recipients as far as the overwhelming majority of the responses lay in between never and rarely. This situation plays its role in undermining the strive for the consolidation of good governance and particularly that of responsiveness in the office of urban planning and development. As a result of this situation the community loses its trust and confidence upon the service providers. In relation to this respondents said that this big problem prevails because there are irresponsive public managers which emanated because of different reasons and they list the reasons behind why irresponsive managers existed and the reasons are they do not get to their office on time, they do not give proper response, they did not give response on time as well as they are not willing to serve the community. In this regard the service users did not deny that there are responsive leaders in providing quick response to the service users unlike that of the irresponsive authorities.

Perception of respondents on the timeliness of service provision to the community with regard to the procedures’ of workings:

Delivering services to the clients within reasonable time frame with regard to the procedures of workings is one manifestation of being responsive to the demands of the service recipients. In relation to this respondents asked whether the service given timely to the community with regard to the procedures’ of workings. Accordingly an estimate of 61(39.9%) respondents replied that the public institution never gives a timely service to the service recipients with regard to the procedures’ of workings and around 56(36.6%) replied the office gives a timely service to the constituents’ on rare occasions and on the other hand around 6(3.9%) responded that they can’t decide whether the office gives a timely service to the constituents’ or not and about 21(13.7%) reported that the office gives a timely service to the constituents’ some times while around 9(5.9%) reported that the office gives a timely service to the constituents’ always.

From this the researcher understands that the office lags behind in delivering effective and efficient services within reasonable time frame with regard to the procedures of workings. And this affects the governance system in the realm of service provision. Institutions should be approachable to their clients and serve them within a reasonable time frame and the procedures of workings need to be on time.

Perception of respondents on how likely is the city’s urban planning and development office solves the most important problem:

1. How likely is the city’s urban planning and development office solves the most important urban planning and development problems?

Prioritizing problems that need quick fixation and urgent response are critical in improving governance in service delivery. And it helps for the policy makers (service providers) to devise policies so as to adjust the policies in order to deal with the most important problems. In relation to this respondents were requested to know whether the office solves the most important problems related to its workings. So, an estimate of 12(7.8%) respondents reported that the office solves most important problems related to its workings always and about 26(17%) respondents reported that the office solves most important problems in a fast manner and on the other hand around 55(35.9%) replied that the office solves most important problems very slowly and about 50 (32.7) reported that it solves the problem slowly and around 10(6.5%) reported that the office is medium in solving most important problems. From this one can understand that the overwhelming majority of respondents lay in between slow and very slow.

This shows that the office lags behind in identifying and solving the most important problems related to the workings of the office which has negatively affects the workings of the office to undertake the responsibilities in a transparent manner. This situation creates a problem in ensuring good atmosphere for the strive of consolidating the practice of good governance in the given office. The office need to prioritize the most important problems related to the functioning of the office so as to pave the way for practicing good governance.

According to the personal observation conducted the office is very slow in fixing the most important problems related to the workings of the office quickly.

Perception of respondents on mechanism to accept suggestions from the community:

Having suggestion box in a given office is crucial in that it helps to accept the suggestions given in the box and to entertain the diverse suggestions and opinions for warded by the constituents which is crucial to include the suggestions given in the plans and programs and more importantly to adjust (modify) the plans, programs and general workings of the office by taking in to account the suggested ideas and it plays its role in fostering responsiveness and generally that of enough governance. As the result in the above survey shows an estimate of 98(64.1%) respondents replied that the office has a suggestion box. So from the above result of the survey the researcher understand that the office has a suggestion box. But this situation is subjected to whether the service users have an exposer in service using to the office. The result on the second question in the above table shows 55(35.9%) of the respondents responded as the office does not have a suggestion box. From this one can understand that the office has a mechanism of accepting the suggestions of clients using suggestion box. But, the respondents said that even if this is so the office did not see what was suggested in the box and collect it on the specified time frame. As a result of this it did not entertain the diverse suggestions given by the clients in the box. This situation has a serious implication in which it undermines the effective and efficient service delivery. This situation on its part plays its part in hindering the strive for enhancing enough governance and particularly that of responsiveness.

Impediments of good governance and measures taken to improve good governance As literatures pointed out there are different bottle necks in the strive for fostering good governance mainly in local level governments which is mostly related to administrative problems, capacity and technical problems as well as rent seeking behaviour and corruption from the part of the service providers as well as unfair treatment of among the service recipients by the service providers.

Perception of respondents on impediments of good governance and measures taken to improve good governance in the realm of service provision:

In relation to this in the above table respondents were asked whether there are challenges in the office of land administration. Accordingly 23(15%) of the respondents responded that the office never faces challenges and around 30(19.6%) replied that there are challenges in the office rarely and about 6(3.9%) responded that they can’t decide whether there are challenges in the office or not and on the other hand an estimate of 34(22.2%) reported that there are challenges in the office some times while around 60(39.2%) respondents reported that challenges prevail always.

Large size of respondents lay in between some times and mainly always. From this the researcher understands that there are impediments’ that influence good governance with regard to transparency and responsiveness in the office. They said the challenges are related to administrative problems, the service providers are not capacitated enough and technically the staff is not well equipped, the resource available is also not fair enough to carry out every workings related to the office.

There is also a problem of accessing information to the public so information if not reached to the society effectively and efficiently, un equal treatment of service recipients because there are service providers who serve they know firstly instead of serving all citizens impartially, rent seeking and corruption which is mostly related to nepotism, bribery and prioritizing self-advantage technical problems and soon are main challenges.

In relation to this issue respondents also asked whether the office of land administration takes measures so as to tackle these problems. Accordingly an estimate of 106(69%) sample respondents reported that the office never takes measures in dealing with the challenges and. The urban planning and development office takes measures whenever problems occurred.

About 29(19%) replied that the office takes measures rarely and around 2(1.3%) reported that they can’t decide whether the office takes measures or not and around 16(10.5%) replied that the office takes measures always. From this survey one can understand that the office is lagging behind in dealing with the prevailed challenges of good governance related to responsiveness and transparency. Hence, transparency and responsiveness had compromised in the selected sub cities which are the most critical elements of good governance.

In relation to the challenges of good governance key informants of interview said there were certain challenges previously which are mostly related to the system of land distribution which previously distributed to the leaders of the Tabia in which they did not fulfilled the requirements to possess land which now created a big problem to fix this problem. So, land is a major factor to become fundamental factor in spoiling the system of governance in the sub cities. In addition to that issue informants also add that there was a challenge in assigning the right person in the right place which is related to capacity of the civil servants (service providers) and a problem not going in parallel with the Business Process Reengineering, lack of support and follow up to the service providers in relation to their duty.

From the side of service users there was a preparation by the service users to possess land by disregarding the established rules and regulations of the land administration and urban planning and possessing it in unlawful (illegal) manner, lack of genuine and committed civil servant (service provider) which is related to teaching the service users about the rules and regulations, rent seeking behaviour and corruption practice from the side of service providers which is mainly related to bribery, nepotism and discrimination, not serving individuals who present their dissatisfaction and complaints in proper way and on time, problem of prioritizing self-advantage (not putting citizens interest first), problem of work ethics and loving your job, lack of spirit of service giving, lack of awareness about the rights and responsibilities’ from the part of the community, the participation of the community was insignificant for improving the atmosphere of governance, not solving the complaints of the users, the limited and even if the laws governing the system prevailed there is a big gap in implementing(enforcing) what was devised.

They added that low capacity which is related to limited technical and human resources, low commitment from the side of service providers, corruptors, low payment for the employees and unfair treatment of service users by the providers are the main hindrances’ for improving good governance (transparency and responsiveness). Generally the main reasons that hindered for improving the governance system of the land administration were shortage of material resources and human resources, low capacity or competence of the public office, skill and knowledge, dishonesty and irresponsiveness and corruption. Improving the coverage of quality basic services is a major concern for states and donors. Some of the challenges to ensuring national, equitable coverage are a lack of skilled personnel and unsustainable financial provision.

Good Governance demands of leadership, the commitment to ensuring that all employees have the skills, knowledge and experience that they require to perform well. This also means having the ability to develop and manage people and be able to assess their performance.

In the third question again respondents also requested which is related to whether there are challenges that influence good governance (responsiveness and transparency) in the office of urban planning and development. Accordingly, an estimate of 21(13.7%) respondents reported that the office never comes up with challenges that influence good governance (transparency and responsiveness) and on the other hand about 27(17.6%) reported that the office has challenges on rare occasions and around 25(16.3%) replied that sometimes the office has challenges and around 78(51%) reported the office comes up with good governance challenges always.

From this the researcher understands that the office have a big problem of governance impediments’. The respondents said that the major good governance evil in the office of urban development is corruption and the rent seeking behaviour of the service providers and they list others like administrative problem, lack of capacity among the service providers and the office is not well equipped in equipments and scarcity trained human resource. In relation to this respondents requested whether the office takes remedial measures when such challenges encountered.

Accordingly an estimate of 72(47.1%) reported that the public institution never takes measures in dealing with the listed bottle necks in the given office and on the other hand around 47(30.7%) respondents replied that the office takes measures on rare occasions and about 5(3.3%) replied that they can’t decide whether the office takes measures or not and around 25(16.3%) replied that the office takes measures some times and an estimate of 4(2.6%) responded that the office deals with the challenges always whenever every challenge encounters at the office. From this survey one can understand that the office is lagging behind in tackling the prevalent bottle necks which are already listed in the above discussions.

The situation highly undermines the move towards intensifying the endeavour for ensuring good governance particularly that of responsiveness and transparency especially the wide spread of corruption and rent seeking in the public offices is a major problem which highly undermines the move towards improving enough governance. This situation has created a serious implication for effective and efficient service delivery and improvement in local development in the given sub cities. This situation needs to be tackled so as to minimize the challenges.

According to the key informants of interview they said the office made an endeavour to deal with the challenges of good governance (transparency and responsiveness) firstly by participating the community through aggressive mobilization so as to develop the feeling of sense of ownership as far as the public are advantageous (beneficial) when a good environment for good governance created and vice versa. And they said that they participate the community through carrying out successive meetings and conducting panel discussions so as to identify the setbacks and training the community about the rules, regulations as well as the existing proclamations in relation to land administration and urban planning and with this regard they also said that a good move is also made through introducing and implementing Business Process Reengineering. They also add that to deal with the impediments so as to improve the situation of good governance (transparency and responsiveness) trainings were conducted to train the service providers (employees) in regard to how to handle the service users, how to improve service delivery system and provide them with the available information but problem of continuity prevailed.

On the other extreme according to other key informants of service providers especially in the office of urban planning and development informants said that in this office the service users are not satisfied because there is a delay of decisions, improper response by the service providers as a result of this situation people are complaining every day. And other informants said a good move had been achieved in bringing about good governance which is related to users previously who did not have owner ship data made to get an ownership data, accepting and responding to complaints, replacing the service providers (employees) especially engineers who spoil the system of workings which is mainly because of the rent seeking behaviour and governance and more importantly participating the community in every affairs related to good governance at large.

They add that rent seeking is rampant in land administration and its related workings. Efforts had been made in regard to creating awareness, improving the skill and capacity of the employees and informing and training the community about the rules, regulations and proclamations, building the developmental agents (lematawi gugele), undertaking continuous evaluation of day to day result based performances with the employees, under taking trainings with community, using the aggressively mobilized community for further workings and questioning the service users through questioner so as to measure the level of their satisfaction and under taking a thorough discussions through meetings, panel discussions and others. But, still there is a big problem in sustaining what was performed so far.

An agreement reached with the stake holders so as to improve good governance (transparency and responsiveness) with the government bodies of justice sector, security members and the police department but problems of sustainability remains a challenge.

Despite the fact that important progresses so far made the process of building good governance is at its early stage, which has been facing serious and complex bottlenecks. Major bottle necks in good governance with regard to transparency and responsiveness include lack of adequate awareness about human rights among the public, the limited democratic culture and experience in the country, limited participation of citizens in governance, lack of adequate and appropriate laws and policies in some areas, capacity limitations of law enforcement and governance organs of the government, etc.

“The most serious bottleneck for Ethiopian good local governance is capacity and local government institutions of the country have high shortage of qualified man power.” Many weredas have been witnessing a deficiency in achieving feasible local development and delivering an efficient and effective service for their grass root people and marginalized sections of society [2].

Local administrations are simply overwhelmed with the high amounts of responsibilities and tasks they should implement. Similarly the authors argued that these are topped by weak access to quality capacity building programs and a general lack of practical tools and procedures such as related to participatory planning, monitoring and evaluation and inexistent coordination and management, that lead to inefficient structures and procedures and lack of capacity on the part of councilors at local level to review the planning, budgeting and service delivery functions.

By the same token Dickovick et al. [4] on their paper argued that the capacity of local government in formulating policies, and implementing strategies and development activities is an essential part of the governance structure at local/regional level. Despite the fact that there is a clear capacity gap in running and managing different responsibilities under the umbrella of decentralized governance. Apart from financial and budgetary problems, wored as face serious lack of competent, trained personnel and availability of required number of staff in a particular situation.

The fact that though there are some variations among localities in this regard, local administrators and councilors repeatedly suggested that there are many vacant positions that remain unfilled in their respective localities; this has serious implications for local service delivery and local economic development. The reasons for the presence of vacant positions is the lack of adequate budget to hire new staff members and the inability to remunerate well any prospective staffers that might come to the woreda. This means the woredas lack competitiveness in service delivery and economic development. Andrew [16], in their study argued that many wored as lack skilled personnel since administrative and technical posts created to handle administrative responsibilities have not been fully filled or have been filled by untrained personnel with limited capacity.

Conclusions and Recommendation

Conclusion

Respondents were asked their perception on the practice of good governance with regard to the two key indicators of good governance that are transparency and responsiveness.

Their perception on responsiveness and transparency in the given public offices were assessed with regard to level of satisfaction on accessibility of information, clearness and openness from the public institution to the constituents’, responsiveness and transparency of the given public institutions to the given sub cities dwellers’, to what extent are the constituents are satisfied by the public institutions with regard to service delivery, the main hindrances’ that undermine for the practice of good governance (transparency and responsiveness). Accordingly, based on the already analyzed data, the following conclusions are drawn.

For a given public office to be transparent in front of the constituents (service users) it must be open for its actions and a responsibility which is help full to be trusted, faith full and have a confidence on the service providers. For the service users to be transparent in shouldering their rights and responsibilities in a transparent manner. Openness is one manifestation of transparency plays a pivotal role in minimizing corruption because if service providers be open they are just manifesting transparency. However in the given study area the office of land administration as well as the office of urban planning and development are lagged behind in ensuring openness as a measurement of transparency. Generally, the office did not do much to consolidate good governance in this regard. Accessibility of information will help the public to have all important information on land that equipped them to give appropriate decisions on land, builds informed citizens and helps to create awareness of the stake holders. But, in the selected public institutions there was inaccessibility of information concerning to those who will be affected by any decision and enforcements taken in the workings. Information was not freely and directly accessible to them. The office does not ensure whether relevant information on land is accessible to the public. In an overall the office does not make information concerning land accessible to community members and the general public. In addition the office did not have a capacity to disseminate information to the constituents. These manifestations of transparency got compromised in the office of land administration and urban planning and development. This was affecting the atmosphere of governance of land administration in the realm of service provision. Generally it can be concluded that the society in the given study area were not well informed about the land administration and urban planning and development in the sphere of service delivery and have not capacity to participate in decisions as a result of lack of enough information and with regard to these issues the offices did not ensure these manifestations of transparency and generally of good governance.

Constituents (service users) in the given public offices were not communicated information in easily understandable forms and media. The office did not ensure communicating the information in easily understandable forms and media. From this survey one can understand that the office is lagging behind in communicating information in easy and understandable manner to the service users which negatively affects in creating informed citizens in the realm of service provision. If the communities get consulted in the policies and programs the society will forward policy options and will strive for the better implementations of the policies and programs and they feel sense of owner ship. The offices failed to use the opportunity that will come from different corners that enables to design better programs. Accordingly; the office is lagging behind to ensure good governance.

The office lacks institutional capacity to perform its tasks which is related to lack of technical instruments, poor data recording system and poor involvement from the part of the society which are help full for effective and efficient service provision as a result of this the office lacks competency in undertaking the overall workings within the office. The office is lagging behind in making the rules and regulations easily accessible which plays its part in hindering the office from being transparent. This situation influences the strive made for improving enough governance. As a result of this the society did not know what is expected from him (her) and the right he (she) supposed to get. The existing rules, regulations, proclamations and policies were not well organized and made accessible to increase the knowledge and awareness of the society concerning these rules, procedures, proclamations and policy on land administration in the realm of service provision. The office did not carry out discussions and consultations regarding to the rules and proclamations of the land and their contents and structures with the general public. The 121 committee of the office of the given public offices are not transparent for their decisions mainly related to that the offices did not shoulder openness for its actions and responsibilities, not making the information accessible and lack of clearness in which the public become un awarded and non-evaluative because of lack of transparent decision by the respective authorities in which it plays its part in lagging behind the strive for consolidating (upgrading) good governance. Responsiveness is one of the variables used to assess governance of the land administration and urban planning. Responsiveness of government means that institutions and processes try to serve all stakeholders within a reasonable timeframe. Responsiveness also implies the receptiveness of institutions to the demands of their stakeholders and institutions should be approachable to their clients and serve them within a reasonable time frame. In this study responsiveness used to assess timeless of response on problems, conflicts and complaints in the realm of service provision, prioritizing needs and desires of the general public (consistency), Grievances handling mechanism, Assessing needs and interests, Appropriateness of response and Prioritizing problems as well as preferences. Accordingly in these listed manifestations as the result of the survey shows that the offices does not tries to serve all constituents’ within a specified time frame. By the same token the offices are not receptive to the demands of their constituents’.

In the given study area the hindrances’ of good governance (transparency and responsiveness) were also assessed. Accordingly, according to the key informants of questioner and interview they said there are challenges that hinder for improving good governance in the given sub cities that are low commitment from the civil servants, not well trained staff (low capacity), technical and rampant rent seeking and corrupt behaviour from the side of the employees which is mostly related to nepotism, bribery and a delay of decisions, discrimination (unfair treatment of the constituents’), limited technical and human resources, dishonesty, low skill and knowledge, delay on working hours, not putting citizens interest first (prioritizing self-advantage), good practices such as having suggestion box and information desk in the given offices were praised in this study. There were certain endeavours made for upgrading good governance in the given sub cities. But, the endeavours made are not satisfactory and fair enough.

Recommendation

Based on the findings of the study and conclusions made the following recommendations and policy implications are forwarded to different level of decision makers and potential researchers in the area.

The offices should be equipped with adequate human as well as materials resources that can facilitate the effective and efficient service provision as the same time structures of the workings of the offices need to be adjusted in order to be suited with the services that are going to be delivered. Enough equipment’s can be provided by the city municipality, city administration, via aggressive mobilization of the community to contribute at large and other stake holders like NGOS. The offices need to recruit and assign well trained and professional civil servants/ bureaucrats who follow and abide by ethical work conducts for effective, efficient provision of quality services to the constituents’.

Maintaining skilled and knowledgeable staff through leadership, training, development and commitment to continuous improvement in the delivery of services which can be done via empowering and building the capacity of service providers which helps to assign the capacitated human power at the right place in the land administration and urban planning and development by giving long and short term training that helps them for providing effective and efficient services, consistent, transparent, responsive decisions and proportional decision. Accordingly, the city administration particularly the given sub cities in collaboration with higher level governments and other stake holders for example NGOS should organize short and long term seminars for both service providers in the given offices in order to upgrade professional capabilities and provide efficient, effective, impartial and quality services to the constituents’.

As it has been discussed in the conclusion part for a given office or institution to perform its tasks in general and to be transparent and responsive to its stakeholders and to the public in particular must be open for its actions and responsibilities to its stake holders. Provision of information is pivotal to make genuine decisions in land administration and urban planning and development to create an awarded and informed community in general. So there is a need to make information accessible, relevant and enough to the public as well as training the community in information systems. Information can be communicated using different mechanisms to provide such as by conducting meetings and successive panel discussions’ with the constituents’ by posting different in formations on notice board and applying the current systems of ICT for example by having web site which are help full to provide effective and efficient service provision.

The communitiesneed to be consulted, trained and informed in the policy programs, rules, regulations as well as the proclamations and programs in relation to what goods and services are to be provided, who the beneficiaries are, how much they cost , how well they are provided and any other critical issues related to service provision through conducting awareness creation campaigns, through meetings and undertaking panel discussions and conducting extensive capacity building efforts via successive trainings for the service users which is help full for the constituents’ in order not to disregard the laws and abide by them as well as to forward policy options and strive for the better implementations of the policies and programs and feel sense of owner ship in the realm of service provision. The office need to prioritize the problems which need quick fixation and urgent response. This can be ensured/done by giving priority to the most important problems encountered’ as far as it is a critical element in improving good governance in service delivery and justice should reach at the door of the constituents.

The office need to improve the capacity and ethical disposition of the respective administrators so that they are capable of providing easy, fast, accurate, quality and affordable services and build mutual trust between the government and the public through the provision of information with guaranteed easy access to accurate and adequate information. The offices need to conduct meetings and conferences where the general public can easily get and interactively provide information for decision making on service provision in the offices.

There is a need for clearness in rules and regulations which restricts the action of the bureaucrats in order not to abuse the rights of the constituents’ and their power. In order to improve the responsiveness’ of the office the bureaucrats should be at the work place on time and the responses they give should be proper. This can be done by devising strict regulatory mechanisms and evaluation system and performances need to be evaluated on the specified time frame. The diverse needs and preferences of the society should be assessed in order to clearly distinguish the desires and preferences of the constituents’ in which it can be carried out via meetings, by having suggestion box and the mare prevalence of this cannot guarantee it rather collecting the suggestions via meetings, panel discussions, question are and suggestion box and giving quick response based on the specified time frame, through providing effective, efficient and quality services, by prioritizing problems, by preparing questionnaire so as to know and level the perception of constituents’ on service provision and also through interview mechanism. Having conducting these the offices need to incorporate and accommodate these needs and preferences in to plans and different projects by involving the public at large when plans and projects going to be done. The implementation of the office should also be according to these needs and preferences of the constituents’.

The rules governing the workings of the two offices must be clear to all stakeholders before service has undertaken in relation to how services to be delivered, what kind of services and to whom will be delivered and there should be a consensus on them. This can be done by announcing the public to discuss their concern on it by preparing meetings and so on. In addition to this the time for service provision must also clearly known by announcing on meetings, posting notices, preparing hard copies and disseminating to the constituents’ by broadcasting using microphones on the day that the service will be provided. The offices need to fight corruption and rent seeking behaviour through aggressively mobilizing the community via conducting awareness creation programs and campaigns for both the bureaucrats/service providers and the constituents’ and informing the constituents that getting efficient and effective services is their right and not to assure their right of getting services through bribery and other meanness and training and awarding other stake holders about the evils of corruption and taking measures for the bureaucrats who commit corruption and rent seeking. Enforcement of decisions should strictly made in accordance to the established laws, rules and regulations. In addition to this constituents’ should aware that they get services provided in accordance to the established laws, rules, regulations as well as proclamations. Because, good land administration and urban planning and development governance needs honest, participatory and serious application of certain principles to land and urban planning and development policy, land and urban planning related legislation, administration, management and reforms.

The regional Government should assess critically the capacity constraint at the sub cities and should provide comprehensive capacity building to the sub cities. This will enable the lower Governments to develop their capacity in order to deliver effective quality service to the constituents’.

The offices should strengthen their endeavour so as to consolidate and sustain the efforts made far by incorporating the above details in to effect in the realm of service provision. The inter play of different stake holders for instance the city municipality, the sub cities administration and city administration as well is commendable to strengthen good governance in general and responsive governance practice in particular in the city.

Little research had been done on the area of good governance at the local level more specifically with regard to transparency and responsiveness. The investigator had made a little progress in assessing the practice of good governance in the sub cities. The researcher therefore, advices for other researchers who have an interest to conduct their research on good governance in lower level administration by giving an attention on the selected public institution.

References


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