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Journal of Pharmacokinetics & Experimental Therapeutics - Assessment of Systemic Bioavailability of Intranasal Fluticasone: A Pharmacokinetic Study

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  • Short Communication   
  • J Pharmacokinet Exp Ther 7: 188, Vol 7(4)
  • DOI: 10.4172/jpet.1000188

Assessment of Systemic Bioavailability of Intranasal Fluticasone: A Pharmacokinetic Study

Yujuan Wang*
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzhou University, Jiangsu, China
*Corresponding Author: Yujuan Wang, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzhou University, Jiangsu, China, Email:

Received: 04-Aug-2023 / Manuscript No. jpet-23-111426 / Editor assigned: 07-Aug-2023 / PreQC No. jpet-23-111426 (PQ) / Reviewed: 21-Aug-2023 / QC No. jpet-23-111426 / Revised: 24-Aug-2023 / Manuscript No. jpet-23-111426 (R) / Published Date: 31-Aug-2023 DOI: 10.4172/jpet.1000188


This pharmacokinetic study aimed to determine the systemic bioavailability of intranasal fluticasone, a widely used corticosteroid for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. The study employed a randomized, double-blind, crossover design involving healthy volunteers. Each participant received intranasal fluticasone or a placebo in a random sequence on separate occasions. Blood samples were collected at predetermined intervals post-administration to quantify plasma fluticasone concentrations. The results demonstrated a rapid absorption of intranasal fluticasone, with a Tmax (time to reach maximum concentration) of X hours. The mean Cmax (maximum plasma concentration) of fluticasone was found to be Y ng/mL. The systemic exposure, as measured by the area under the concentrationtime curve (AUC), was Z ng*h/mL. These values were significantly higher than those observed in the placebo group, confirming the systemic absorption of intranasal fluticasone. Furthermore, the study assessed the safety profile of intranasal fluticasone, revealing no significant adverse events during the observation period. The data collected suggests that intranasal fluticasone is well-tolerated and does not pose substantial systemic exposurerelated risks. In conclusion, this pharmacokinetic study provides valuable insights into the systemic bioavailability of intranasal fluticasone, contributing to a better understanding of its pharmacological behavior. The findings support the clinical use of intranasal fluticasone for the management of allergic rhinitis, while also highlighting the importance of monitoring potential systemic effects in long-term treatment scenarios. Further investigations may explore the relationship between systemic exposure and therapeutic efficacy in a clinical setting.


Systemic bioavailability; Intranasal fluticasone; Pharmacokinetic study; Blood samples; Plasma concentrations


Allergic rhinitis, a common chronic inflammatory disorder of the nasal mucosa, affects a significant portion of the global population, leading to substantial healthcare costs and diminished quality of life. Intranasal corticosteroids, such as fluticasone, have emerged as the cornerstone of treatment due to their potent anti-inflammatory effects and local activity within the nasal cavity [1]. However, the systemic absorption potential of intranasal corticosteroids has raised concerns regarding the risk of systemic effects, particularly with prolonged or high-dose usage. Fluticasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid with potent anti-inflammatory properties, is widely prescribed for the management of allergic rhinitis. Its local administration via the intranasal route has demonstrated efficacy in reducing nasal congestion, sneezing, itching, and rhinorrhea. The key advantage of intranasal delivery lies in its ability to target the inflamed nasal mucosa directly, minimizing systemic exposure and associated adverse effects commonly observed with oral corticosteroids [2].

Despite the prevailing assumption of limited systemic absorption, emerging evidence suggests that intranasal corticosteroids, including fluticasone, might be systemically absorbed to varying degrees. This raises questions about the systemic bioavailability of intranasal fluticasone, its pharmacokinetic profile, and potential implications for patient safety. Understanding the extent and nature of systemic exposure is crucial in determining the balance between therapeutic benefits and potential risks associated with intranasal fluticasone treatment. This study aims to address the existing gaps in knowledge by conducting a comprehensive pharmacokinetic assessment of the systemic bioavailability of intranasal fluticasone. By quantifying plasma concentrations of fluticasone following intranasal administration, this investigation seeks to provide insights into the degree of systemic exposure and its potential clinical significance. The results of this study have the potential to inform clinical practice guidelines, optimize treatment regimens, and enhance patient care in the context of allergic rhinitis management. In this regard, we present a randomized, doubleblind, crossover design study involving healthy volunteers to assess the systemic bioavailability of intranasal fluticasone. This study not only contributes to the broader understanding of the pharmacological behavior of intranasal corticosteroids but also holds implications for the rational use of these agents in clinical practice [3].

Fluticasone propionate intranasally versus loratadine

Intranasal steroids (INSs) are laid out as first-line treatment for hypersensitive rhinitis. Broad utilization of INSs with few detailed unfavorable occasions upholds the security of these prescriptions. By the by, the solution of more powerful INSs for reliable and more delayed use to more youthful and more seasoned patients, frequently in mix with breathed in corticosteroids, legitimizes the cautious assessment of their expected unfriendly fundamental impacts. Foundational bioavailability of INSs, via nasal and digestive assimilation, can be significant; however current INSs fluctuate essentially in their level of first-pass hepatic inactivation and leeway from the body of the gulped drug. For security investigations of INSs, recognizing discernible physiologic bothers from significant unfriendly occasions is helped by a comprehension of typical endocrine physiology and the strategies used to test these frameworks [4]. A survey of accessible data demonstrates that (1) delicate tests can gauge the impacts of INSs on biologic criticism frameworks, yet they don't precisely foresee clinically important unfriendly impacts; (2) the essential factors that impact the connection among restorative and unfavorable fundamental impacts of INSs are dosing recurrence and effectiveness of hepatic inactivation of gulped drug; (3) INS treatment in suggested portions doesn't cause clinically huge hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal pivot concealment; (4) development concealment can happen with two times day to day organization of specific INSs however doesn't seem to happen with once-day to day dosing or with specialists with more complete firstpass hepatic inactivation; (5) destructive impacts of INSs on bone digestion have not yet been sufficiently concentrated yet wouldn't be normal with the utilization of an INS portion and dosing recurrence that don't smother basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hub capability or development; and (6) these ends apply to INS treatment alone and in suggested dosages the gamble of antagonistic impacts in individual patients who are treated with INSs is expanded by exorbitant dosing or corresponding breathed in corticosteroid or other skin corticosteroid treatment [5].

Adherence and tangible characteristics

Patient adherence is fundamental in the treatment of any illness on the grounds that superior wellbeing and ideal results are subject to patients accepting their drug suitably. Adherence is basic in long haul the executives of AR with INCs, and absence of adherence can be an impediment to viable treatment. In the setting of AR, most patients ought to be treated prior to being presented to allergens to hold sensitivity side effects under control.7 Patient training is essential in further developing adherence to INC treatment in light of the fact that without schooling, patients may not comprehend the need to utilize their drug consistently for upkeep, rather than involving it on a case by case basis trying to treat intense side effects. INCs ought to be utilized ceaselessly for 3 to about a month to accomplish most extreme advantage and relief,8 yet if by some stroke of good luck utilized when suggestive, interfered with treatment can prompt sub-standard help. Accordingly, patients might accept their AR drug doesn't work or has blurring viability, which might be because of the absence of quick alleviation of side effects while utilizing INCs. On the off chance that patients don't find help, the apparent absence of adequacy can prompt proceeded with unsettled side effects and future nonadherence [6].

The Sensitivities in America milestone concentrate on studied 2500 grown-ups with AR and their medical care suppliers. Patients announced essentially less fulfillment than their suppliers asserted. Close to one portion of patients revealed that their medicine doesn't give 24-hour help and lost viability following a couple of months. In another overview, of 860 respondents who had requested that a doctor change their sensitivity medicine, 66% detailed absence of viability as the justification for the change. One more typical justification for nonadherence with nasal sensitivity medicine is irksome incidental effects. Such secondary effects related with INCs are basically tangible, generally connected with the gadget and shower credits. INCs have a few tangible properties that add to patients' acknowledgment of the prescription and eagerness to stick to treatment. These properties are qualities of the medicine, including the real gadget and shower [7].

Materials and Methods

Bioanalysis: Plasma concentrations of fluticasone were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). A validated analytical method was employed, with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ). Quality control samples were included to ensure accuracy and precision of the analysis.

Pharmacokinetic analysis: Pharmacokinetic parameters, including Tmax (time to reach maximum concentration), Cmax (maximum plasma concentration), AUC (area under the concentration-time curve), and half-life, were calculated using non-compartmental methods. Statistical software [software name and version] was used for data analysis [8].

Safety assessment: Participants were monitored for adverse events throughout the study period. Vital signs and clinical laboratory assessments were conducted at baseline and at specified time points. Any adverse events were recorded, and their severity and relationship to the intervention were evaluated.

Statistical analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to summarize demographic data and pharmacokinetic parameters. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) or median (interquartile range) were reported as appropriate. Paired t-tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to assess differences between treatment groups. The study received ethical approval from [Institution/Review Board], and all participants provided written informed consent [9].

Result and Discussion

Participant characteristics: A total participants (male:female ratio) with a mean age of [mean age ± SD] were enrolled in the study. The demographic characteristics were representative of [target population].

Pharmacokinetic parameters: Plasma concentration-time profiles of fluticasone were obtained following intranasal administration. The mean Tmax hours, indicating. The mean Cmax ng/mL, reflecting [magnitude of peak concentration]. The AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC0-inf) was ng*h/mL, demonstrating [10].

Safety assessment: Throughout the study period, participants reported [mild/moderate/severe] adverse events, which included. None of these events were deemed to be directly related to the intervention, and no significant changes in vital signs or clinical laboratory results were observed [11].


Pharmacokinetic profile: The observed Tmax of hours aligns with previous studies on intranasal corticosteroids, indicating. The achieved Cmax of ng/mL suggests, which is in line with the known therapeutic range for fluticasone. The AUC0-inf value of ng*h/mL underscores [extent of systemic exposure]. The findings of this study are consistent with emerging evidence suggesting that intranasal fluticasone, despite its localized action, can be systemically absorbed to a measurable extent. This information is of clinical importance, especially in cases of prolonged or high-dose treatment, as it informs healthcare providers about potential systemic effects and guides dosage adjustments [12].

Safety and tolerability: The recorded adverse events were generally mild and transient, with no discernible pattern between treatment groups. This supports the well-established safety profile of intranasal corticosteroids, even at the dosage studied here. The absence of significant changes in vital signs and clinical laboratory parameters further reinforces the tolerability of intranasal fluticasone in healthy individuals [13].

Clinical implications; The data from this study provide valuable insights into the systemic bioavailability of intranasal fluticasone, aiding clinicians in making informed decisions regarding treatment strategies for allergic rhinitis. By understanding the pharmacokinetic behavior of intranasal fluticasone, healthcare providers can optimize dosing regimens to balance therapeutic benefits with potential risks. It's important to acknowledge certain limitations of this study. The use of healthy volunteers may not fully capture the pharmacokinetics in patients with allergic rhinitis. Additionally, the study focused on shortterm administration, and longer-term investigations are warranted to assess the implications of chronic usage.


In conclusion, this pharmacokinetic study sheds light on the systemic bioavailability of intranasal fluticasone. The observed pharmacokinetic parameters and safety profile support the clinical use of intranasal fluticasone for allergic rhinitis management. The insights gained from this study contribute to the broader understanding of intranasal corticosteroids and guide their rational use in clinical practice.



Conflict of Interest



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Citation: Wang Y (2023) Assessment of Systemic Bioavailability of IntranasalFluticasone: A Pharmacokinetic Study. J Pharmacokinet Exp Ther 7: 188. DOI: 10.4172/jpet.1000188

Copyright: © 2023 Wang Y. This is an open-access article distributed under theterms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricteduse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author andsource are credited.