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Chronoregulation of Ruminants Feed Intake: A Cropping Science
ISSN: 2329-8863
Advances in Crop Science and Technology
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  • Editorial   
  • Adv Crop Sci Tech 2015, Vol 3(3): e125
  • DOI: 10.4172/2329-8863.1000e125

Chronoregulation of Ruminants Feed Intake: A Cropping Science

Akbar Nikkhah*
Chief Highly Distinguished Professor, Foremost Principal Highly Distinguished Elite-Generating Scientist, Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Zanjan, National Elite Foundation, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Akbar Nikkhah, Chief Highly Distinguished Professor, Foremost Principal Highly Distinguished Elite-Generating Scientist, Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Zanjan, National Elite Foundation, Iran, Tel: 0098-241-5152801, Email:

Received: 16-Jun-2015 / Accepted Date: 18-Jun-2015 / Published Date: 25-Jun-2015 DOI: 10.4172/2329-8863.1000e125


Chronophysiology is an evolutionary pragmatic interscience that helps ruminants cope with the fluctuating environment. In light of the most recent discoveries on feeding and eating timing-orchestration of postprandial intake and rumen fermentation patterns, an innovative perspective is born to analyze chronophysiology as a major organizer of voluntary feed intake (VFI). This article elaborates on this postmodern innovation.

Keywords: Chronophysiology; Ruminant; Nutrient intake; Circadian pattern

Innovation of a Pragmatic Theory

Quantitative evaluation of the factors regulating VFI in highproducing ruminants is of high priority, as it enables proper modeling and adequately accurate predictions of feed intake especially during critical physiological conditions [1,2]. However, due the multitude of effectors under varying farm, diet and animal conditions, securing reasonable accuracy has been an enormous challenge [3-6].

Recent discoveries on timing of feeding-eating mediation of postprandial and circadian patterns of feed intake in lactating dairy cows, has opened new windows into VFI regulation [7,8]. The fact that night-fed cows consume feed more rapidly shortly post-feeding compared to morning-fed cows suggests that the mechanisms regulating VFI differ in nature and magnitude depending on time of the 24-h period.

The path of evolution has equipped ruminants with biological tools to effectively ferment and degrade plant cell walls and be able to survive in such a natural wild environment. As such, ruminants developed significant capacities to regurgitate the ingesta and rechew for sufficient microbial adherence and fermentation. This development has followed the circadian nature of life on earth, regulated to possess almost 24-h rhythms. The phenomenon made it possible for ruminants to graze often at sunrise and sunset and also voluntarily during day to be able to ruminate later in evening and overnight when they rest under relaxed and safe conditions far from any threats from predators. Modernity, however, has somehow interfered with such rhythmic behaviors, but indeed has not totally changed them. These effects need to be quantified for accurate determination of feeding and eating timing on daily and rhythmic feed intake regulation. Timing of feed provision and thus eating activity does noticeably modify postprandial rhythms of intake, rumen fermentation, splanchnoperipheral metabolites, and thus productivity and health [7-10]. This innovative science possesses significant health and life quality implications for human, notably to minimize risks from different cancers, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular abnormalities [11-15].

In a nutshell, a global theory is being specialized to relate feed intake regulation to circadian timing of feed preparation and presentation. Efforts will be made to incorporate timing of feeding/eating into voluntary feed intake prediction models. This is expected to improve prediction accuracy under varying animal and farm management conditions.


A new innovative science is being developed to establish the impact of chronophysiological management of ruminants on VFI regulation both accumulatively and rhythmically. Timing of feeding, milking, treating, grouping and other farm essentialities will be viewed within this chronophysiological framework. The goal is to more accurately predict nutrient intake under varying farm, diet and animal conditions.


The Ministry of Science Research and Technology, National Elite Foundation and University of Zanjan are thanked for supporting the author’s global programs of optimizing the new millennium science edification.


  1. Nikkhah A (2013)Chronophysiology of ruminant feeding behavior and metabolism: an evolutionary review. Biol Rhythm Res 44:197-218.
  2. Nikkhah A (2011a) Bioscience of ruminant intake evolution: feeding time models. Adv Biosci Biotechnol 2:271-274.
  3. Taweel HZ, Tas BM, Dijkstra J, Tamminga S (2004) Intake regulation and grazing behavior of dairy cows under continuous stocking. J Dairy Sci 87:3417-3427.
  4. Nikkhah A(2011b) Ruminant chronophysiological management: an emerging bioscience. Open Access AnimPhysiol 3:9-12.
  5. Nikkhah A (2011c) Science of eating time: A novel chronophysiological approach to optimize glucose-insulin dynamics and health. J. DiabMellit 2:8-11.
  6. Nikkhah A, Furedi C, Kennedy A, Wittenberg K, Plaizier JC (2010) Feed delivery at 2100 h vs. 0900 h for lactating dairy cows. Can J Anim Sci 91:113-122.
  7. Nikkhah A(2012) Timing of feed presentation entrains periprandial rhythms of energy metabolism indicators in once-daily fed lactating cows. Biol Rhythm Res 43: 651-661.
  8. Nikkhah A(2014) Timing of eating a global orchestrator of biological rhythms: dairy cow nitrogen metabolism and milk fatty acids. Biol. Rhythms Res 45: 661-670.
  9. Nikkhah A (2014) Review: Ruminant feed intake regulation evolution: Chronophysiological rhythms perspectives. Biol. Rhythm Res 45:563-577.
  10. Nikkhah A(2014) Timing of feeding: a postmodern management strategy to modulate chronophysiological rhythms in rumen fermentation kinetics. Biol Rhythm Res 45: 533-540.
  11. Nikkhah A (2015) Discovering the Right Time to Take Food to Smash Diabetes. J Diabetes Res Ther 1.1
  12. Nikkhah A (2015) Intake Circadian Physiology: An Overlooked Public Health Concern. Endocrinol Metab Synd 1:1.
  13. Nikkhah A(2015) Wrecked Oncogenesis through Synchronized Substrate Availability and Oxidation: A Novel Bioengineering of Cell Physiology. Aust. J. Biotechnol. Bioeng 2: 1042-1043.
  14. Nikkhah A (2015) Untimely intake as a postmodern public health bioterrorism. J. Bioterror Biodef 7:e118
  15. Nikkhah A(2015) Avoid Large Night Meals to Stay Fit. J Obes Weight Loss Ther 4: e115.

Citation: Nikkhah A (2015) Chronoregulation of Ruminants Feed Intake: A Cropping Science. Adv Crop Sci Tech 3:e125. Doi: 10.4172/2329-8863.1000e125

Copyright: © 2015 Nikkhah A. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.