Effects of Ageing in Physical Fitness
Pedro Jesús Ruiz-Montero1*, Óscar Chiva-Bartoll2and Ricardo Martín-Moya3
1Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain
2Department for Didactics and Musical, Plastic and Physical Expression. University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
3Department for Didactics and Musical, Plastic and Physical Expression. University of Granada, Granada, Spain
- *Corresponding Author:
- Ruiz-Montero PJ
Department of Physical Education and Sport
Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada
Carretera de Alfacar s/n
18071, Granada, Spain
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: July 1, 2016; Accepted date: July 25, 2016; Published date: August 1, 2016
Citation: Ruiz-Montero PJ, Chiva-Bartoll O, Martín-Moya R (2016) Effects of Ageing in Physical Fitness. Occup Med Health Aff 4:241. doi:
Copyright: © 2016 Ruiz-Montero PJ, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Ageing is a natural and inevitable process with degenerative changes in most of the physical, physiological and psychological functions. Furthermore, the ageing process has an impact on the physical of elderly people. Thus, the aim of this study is to provide to readers of information about effects of ageing and changes in physical fitness as one of the major causes of chronic diseases of ageing people. In addition, the association between physical fitness and physical activity in elderly shows health benefits in this population. In conclusion, the evolution of aging is essentially understood as a gradual accumulation of damage which produces the functional declination of any organism.
Immune system; Organism; Physical fitness; Elderly
Now-a-days, the clinical and medical context often uses elderly
when referring to people over the age of 65 . Ageing is a natural and
inevitable process  associated with lack of adjustment in the
immune system, “immunosenescence” [3-5]. There are cellular and
molecular variations due to the ageing process produce an increase of
infections and immune disorders . Thus, chronic diseases are also
related to the ageing process with a high incidence in the elderly
population . Interactions of external environmental variables and
genetic factors are essential for the understanding of chronic diseases
Cellular and molecular variations due to the ageing process produce
an increase of infections and immune disorders . The increase of
diseases and chronic inflammations associated with the ageing process
is determined by senescent phenotype . The tissue-residing
senescent cells tend to accumulate and might produce a negative
response in the secretory phenotype with pro-inflammatory
characteristics. In addition, senescent cells abound in pathologies
related to ageing such as degenerative or inflammatory disorders .
Senescent cells are triggered by telomere attrition related to tissues and
ageing [10,11] or in response to diverse stress conditions [10,12] and
the accumulation of DNA damage .
The main characteristic of ageing is a gradual and inevitable
deterioration of physical capacities and degenerative diseases ,
commonly seen in the elderly . Ageing process cause the decrease
of physiological reserves, commonly known as homeostenosis .
The ageing process consists of two types of influences: negative
(acceleration of ageing effects) or positive (delay of ageing effects).
Therefore, knowledge of physical fitness evolution during the ageing process is necessary to guarantee a better understanding of elderly
people and reduce their consequences . Disability, somatic diseases
and depression are common characteristics that appear in the ageing
process without any connection between them .
The evolution of aging is essentially understood as a gradual
accumulation of damage which produces the functional declination of
any organism . In addition, about 100.000 people die every day in
the world due to age related causes .
According to the physical activity, is a very important component of
physical fitness and improves the mobility , physical fitness 
and muscular work capacity of elderly . Moreover, a regular
physical activity produces a reduction in inflammation and chronic
diseases . According to physical fitness in elderly, strength and
aerobic capacity, the second shows a decrease of VO2 over the age of
60 which is due to a reduction in maximum cardiac output and
arterial-venous oxygen difference reduction . Furthermore, the
aerobic capacity starts to decrease after the age of 40 with a loss of 30%
after the age of 65 . On the other hand, there is a reduction in
maximal oxygen uptake of 0.5%–1.0% per year  and this has an
influence on the physical fitness of healthy and sick elderly .
However, the loss of muscular strength ranges between 12%-14%
per decade in people over the age of 50 . Lower body strength is
often more affected than upper body strength [28,29]. Regarding to the
balance in elderly is usually poor and is considered as a risk of falls in
elderly . The balance, specially the dynamic balance, is related to
body posture decreases with the ageing process . Finally, the
flexibility decreases with age but the reduction is irregular, being in
women always higher than in men . Thus, it is necessary a high
intensity of physical exercise under the supervision of a fitness
specialist to improve the strength in this population [33,34]. According
to the same authors, a muscle-strengthening activity for an elderly
person should have a frequency of a minimum of two days a week with
8-10 exercises involving most muscle groups. Flexibility and balance
exercises might be performed for a minimum of two days per week.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare no conflict of interests.
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