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International Journal of Inflammation, Cancer and Integrative Therapy - Expression of the Cancer-Testis Antigen in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
ISSN: 2381-8727

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  • Mini Review   
  • Int J Inflam Cancer Integr Ther, Vol 10(3)

Expression of the Cancer-Testis Antigen in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

Curgliano J*
Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milano, Italy
*Corresponding Author: Curgliano J, Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milano, Italy, Email:

Received: 29-May-2023 / Manuscript No. ijm-23-98260 / Editor assigned: 01-Jun-2023 / PreQC No. ijm-23-98260(PQ) / Reviewed: 15-Jun-2023 / QC No. ijm-23-98260 / Revised: 22-Jun-2023 / Manuscript No. ijm-23-98260(R) / Published Date: 29-Jun-2023


Background: Disease testis (CT) antigens, regularly communicated in human germline cells yet not in physical tissues, may become unusually reexpressed in various malignant growth types. The expression of CT antigens in breast cancer was the focus of this study.

Patients and methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of NY-ESO-1 and MAGE-A in a total of 100 selected invasive breast cancers, 50 of which were estrogen receptor (ER) positive/HER2 negative and 50 of which were triple negative (TN).

Results: MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 expression was found to be significantly higher in TN breast cancers than in ERpositive tumors (P = 0.04). P = 0.07, MAGE-A expression was found in 13 (26%) TN cancers and 5 (10) ER-positive tumors. Nine (18%) TN tumor samples had NY-ESO-1 expression, while only two (4%) ER-positive tumors did.

Conclusions: A significant number of TN breast cancers express the MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 CT antigens. Due to the restricted helpful choices for this gathering of patients, CT antigen-based antibodies could end up being valuable for patients with this aggregate of bosom malignant growth.


Breast cancer; Cancer–testis antigens; MAGE; NY-ESO 1


A group of genes that are primarily expressed in human germline cells are responsible for the encoding of cancer–testis (CT) antigens. They are down-controlled in physical grown-up tissues yet may become unusually reexpressed in different malignancies. Until now, very nearly a 100 qualities and quality families encoding CT antigens have been distinguished [1]. The term "CT-X antigens" is used to distinguish CT antigens that map to chromosome X from non-X CT antigens that are found on other chromosomes. The majority of tumors, including melanomas, bladder, lung, ovarian, and hepatocellular carcinomas, express CT-X antigens, while renal, colon, and hematological malignancies express them less frequently [2]. CT-X antigen articulation is related with a less fortunate result and is more pervasive in higher grade and high level stage cancers. Escalated examination into their conceivable use in helpful immunizations is continuous and a few clinical immunization preliminaries utilizing CT-X antigens, specifically antigens of the MAGE-A family and NY-ESO-1, in patients with lung, ovarian tumors and melanoma are progressing or have been finished [3]. However, there are conflicting results because few studies have examined the presence of CT antigens in breast cancer. Interestingly, a recent analysis of a small number of patients showed that triple-negative (TN) primary breast cancer had a higher incidence of CT-X antigen expression [4]. The presence of CT antigens would provide additional immunotherapeutic options considering the worse clinical prognosis associated with TN breast cancer. As a result, we examined a larger number of breast cancers in this study for the presence of CT antigen. We compared a larger collection of hormonereceptor- positive carcinomas to TN breast cancer in order to better understand the possibility of increased expression of CT antigens [5].

Patients and Methods

Study population

The review depends on the bosom data set of the European Foundation of Oncology, Milan, Italy, and contains clinical history, simultaneous sicknesses, kind of medical procedure and obsessive evaluation including morphological and organic elements for all sequential bosom malignant growth patients who went through a medical procedure from January 1997 to December 2001 [6]. A total of 100 invasive breast cancer cases- 50 hormone-receptor-positive and 50 TN cases—were selected from this patient series, and the corresponding paraffin blocks were retrieved from the European Institute of Oncology's Division of Pathology archives. The World Health Organization's Histological Classification of Breast Tumors, which was modified by Rosen and Obermann, was used to classify the tumors. Cancer grade was evaluated by Elston and Ellis [7].


According to previous reports, the status of the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) as well as the Ki-67-labeling index were evaluated. HER2 immunohistochemical (IHC) articulation was assessed utilizing a 1 : 400 weakening of a polyclonal antiserum (Dako, Glostrup, Denmark). FISH (Vysis PathVysion;) was used to check for gene amplification in all tumors with equivocal (IHC 2+) HER2 results. Chicago, Illinois: Abbott). Tumors with less than 50% expression in the neoplastic cells were considered to be ER and/ or PgR positive. The immunoreactivity for ER and PgR was absent in TN tumors, as was the negative IHC and FISH results for HER2. HER2 expression was centrally tested in all cases with ER and PgR positivity [8]. HER2 IHC articulation was assessed utilizing a 1 : a 400-fold dilution of a Dako polyclonal antiserum. Two pathologists scored the IHC expression as follows: 0 (no staining or only a faint membrane staining), 1+ (faint membrane staining in more than 10% of tumor cells, incomplete membrane staining), 2+ (weak to moderate membrane staining in more than 10% of tumor cells), and 3+ (intense circumferential membrane staining in more than 10% of tumor cells) are the highest possible scores. HER2 scores of 0 and 1+ were deemed negative for this analysis [9].


The data of 5910 pT1-3 pN0-3 M0 breast cancer patients who were referred to the institute for clinical care and therapy were included in the database between January 1997 and December 2001. 50 consecutive female patients with TN breast cancer and 50 patients with highly ERpositive and HER2-negative breast cancers (ER) were identified from this population. The pattern neurotic attributes of trama center and TN bosom cancers are recorded. Histopathological differences between ER and TN breast cancer patients were to be expected. All trama center positive patients were likewise HER2 negative at a focal modification.

IHC was used to check for MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 expression in all samples. Within specific tumor samples, a variety of staining patterns, ranging from 1+ to 3+, were observed. The visual scale shows power (red for 3+, green for 2+ and blue for 1+) and level of staining for every one of the growth tests. The overexpression of the two antigens in ER and TN tumors at various cut-offs is shown. 13 (26 percent) TN cancers had MAGE-A overexpression (score 2+), but only 5 (ten percent) ER tumors did (P = 0.07). Nine (18%) TN tumors showed NY-ESO-1 overexpression (score 2+), but only two (4%) ER lesions did so (P = 0.05). IHC was used to check for MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 expression in all samples. Within specific tumor samples, a variety of staining patterns, ranging from 1+ to 3+, were observed. For each of the tumor samples, the visual scale depicts the intensity as well as the percentage of staining (red for 3+, green for 2+, and blue for 1+). The overexpression of the two antigens in ER and TN tumors at various cut-offs is shown. 13 (26 percent) TN cancers had MAGE-An overexpression (score 2+), but only 5 (ten percent) ER tumors did (P = 0.07). NY-ESO-1 overexpression (score ≥2+) was recorded in nine (18%) TN cancers however just in two (4%) emergency room sores (P = 0.05).


Bosom malignant growth is very much perceived as a heterogeneous sickness from a morphological and underlying point of view as well as in its different practical elements uncovered through examination of its hereditary marks and other lists distinguishable through IHC [10].

TN bosom disease addresses a gathering of cancers, which are hard to treat. Gene array analysis revealed a higher expression of clusters of genes related to proliferation in TN cancers. A higher Ki-67-labeling index expression in TN tumors compared to endocrine-responsive cancers exemplifies this. Our partner of patients showed a comparable raised Ki-67 naming in the TN cases [11]. Vascular-related growth factors and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are two molecules that are frequently expressed in TN tumors and may be the driving force behind these proliferative processes. However, clinical responses to EGFR-targeting agents have been criticized. Alkylating agents, on the other hand, have been shown to be sensitive to BRCA1-deficient cells, such as TN breast cancer cells, in in vitro chemosensitivity studies. Recent research has focused on biological agents like poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARP inhibitors) [12].

The development of the most efficient multimodal strategies and the identification of cohorts of patients most likely to benefit from chemotherapy depend on the prompt identification of characteristics associated with response or resistance to primary therapy. Steroid hormone receptor expression is one of the characteristics that can predict response and outcome. Neurotic complete reduction (pCR) rate are fundamentally higher following neoadjuvant chemotherapy for patients with TN growths contrasted and the chemical receptorpositive companion. No matter what the higher probability of pCR for patients with TN illness, the 5-year sickness free endurance is essentially more regrettable for this accomplice contrasted and the trama center positive associate in a few examinations. Importantly, patients with residual ER-positive tumors fare significantly better than those with residual ER-negative tumors but no pCR [13]. The increased expression of MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 in TN breast cancer may have clinical significance, particularly in the adjuvant treatment setting. It is our ebb and flow imagining that patients with TN bosom malignant growth and insignificant remaining sickness after preoperative chemotherapy are the best setting to test the viability of an inoculation methodology. Until now, breast cancer vaccines have primarily been used to treat end-stage disease [14]. With varying results, vaccines against antigens like MUC1, CEA, HER2, and the carbohydrate antigens have been the subject of several clinical studies. However, after initial treatment, immunotherapy may be most effective in patients with minimal residual disease. CT-X antigens present a novel opportunity to promote vaccine and treatment development [15].


In clinical trials for patients with melanoma and lung cancer, where such antigens are frequently expressed, vaccines that include members of the MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 families are currently being evaluated. MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 antigen expression was found in a patient population with few treatment options, as shown by our research. After surgery, analysis of the expression of the MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 antigens in breast cancer patients may make it possible to identify patients who might benefit from adjuvant therapeutic vaccines.



Conflict of Interest



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Citation: Curgliano J (2023) Expression of the Cancer-Testis Antigen in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer. Int J Inflam Cancer Integr Ther, 10: 220.

Copyright: © 2023 Curgliano J. This is an open-access article distributed underthe terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricteduse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author andsource are credited.