Dersleri yüzünden oldukça stresli bir ruh haline sikiş hikayeleri bürünüp özel matematik dersinden önce rahatlayabilmek için amatör pornolar kendisini yatak odasına kapatan genç adam telefonundan porno resimleri açtığı porno filmini keyifle seyir ederek yatağını mobil porno okşar ruh dinlendirici olduğunu iddia ettikleri özel sex resim bir masaj salonunda çalışan genç masör hem sağlık hem de huzur sikiş için gelip masaj yaptıracak olan kadını gördüğünde porn nutku tutulur tüm gün boyu seksi lezbiyenleri sikiş dikizleyerek onları en savunmasız anlarında fotoğraflayan azılı erkek lavaboya geçerek fotoğraflara bakıp koca yarağını keyifle okşamaya başlar


Factors Affecting Doses for Medical Staff in Orthopaedic Procedures Under X-rays Control
ISSN: 2329-910X
Clinical Research on Foot & Ankle
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business
  • Letter To Editor   
  • Clin Res Foot Ankle, Vol 5(2): 235
  • DOI: 10.4172/2329-910X.1000235

Factors Affecting Doses for Medical Staff in Orthopaedic Procedures Under X-rays Control

Maria A Staniszewska*
Department of Medical Imaging Techniques, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences and Postgraduate Education, Medical University of Lodz, Poland
*Corresponding Author: Maria A Staniszewska, Department of Medical Imaging Techniques, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences and Postgraduate Education, Medical University of Lodz, Poland, Tel: +48 42 272 58 03, Email:

Received: 10-May-2017 / Accepted Date: 22-May-2017 / Published Date: 29-May-2017 DOI: 10.4172/2329-910X.1000235

Letter to Editor

Interventional medical procedures performed under X-rays control became very popular. Beside of cardiology and neurosurgery, they are implemented also in non-vascular fields, like urology, orthopaedy, gastroenterology, etc. In orthopaedic procedures fluoroscopy is used to control of surgery reconstructions. The ICRP recommendations [1] and Directive of EC [2] implemented as the legal rules in Poland [3] require to use at least 2 individual dosimeters by medical staff participating in interventional procedures (IR). Despite of that, orthopaedic teams are treated as low-risk staff and thus not always are properly monitored. Nevertheless, the need of control radiation risk for this group was proved by the results of dose measurements which were conducted by nearly 3 years (2012-2015) in the orthopaedic clinics of the 3 big hospitals in Lodz (Poland). The detail dosimetric control were submitted the members of medical teams performing osteosynthesis for limb fractures. Two methods were applied: intramedullary (more complicated) and remainder (easier to perform). Each team member was equipped in 4 dosimetric tools containing thermoluminescent dosimeters to measure the equivalent doses for the eyes, skin of the hand and the neck (outside of the shield) and to evaluate effective dose. All the procedures were performed under control of X-ray fluoroscopy. The C-arm units used for that were appropriate technical quality. (Material and methods of the measurements were already described in details [4].) The observations performed during the study were as follows. Although all X-ray devices have pulsed fluoroscopy mode any team did use it! Only in one clinic (the hospital No.2) dose rate was reduced to 50%. Additionally, no member of the teams wore the protective glasses and protective gloves (even the operator). The mean doses per one procedure for operator are given in table 1 below.

Hospital KAP [cGy.cm2]
(Average ± standard deviation)
Dose [mSv]
Equivalent for
Eyes Neck Skin on hand
1 586.6±396.5 0.019 0.042 0.034 0.366
2 246.9±199.2 ≈0.003 0.029 0.011 0.677
3 722.0±826.0 0.023 0.073 0.061 1.604

Table 1: The mean doses per one procedure for operator and Kerma Air Product (KAP) in the particular hospitals.

The most important conclusions resulting from the dosimetric measurements are following:

The equivalent doses for operator as the most exposed person are (0.029-0.073) mSv and (0.366-1.604) mSv per one procedure for the eyes and skin of the hand, respectively, Significantly higher are the doses during the procedures of intramedullary osteosynthesis (especially for operator) and also a higher impact to Kerma Air Product (KAP) arises from these significant correlation between KAP and equivalent doses for eyes and neck of operator was also found.

Finally, a maximum value of equivalent dose for eyes possible to collect by the operator during one year was evaluated and then compared to the lowered annual limit (i.e. 20 mSv) recommended by ICRP [1]. The result for Hospital No.3 was taken into account, i.e. 0.073 mSv per one procedure. Assuming the number of 300 procedures (mostly intramedullary osteosynthesis ones) are performed during one year by one operator, the maximal equivalent dose for his eyes achieves ≈22 mSv and exceeds the recommended limit of 20 mSv. Such risk can be significantly reduced if lower dose rate (like in Hospital No.2) and/or pulsed fluoroscopy are used , together with individual protective glasses.


  1. ICRP Statements on tissue reactions (2011) ICRP 4825-3093-1464. Ottawa (ON): ICRP.
  2. Disposal Minister of Health givenin 2006 August 21st concerning the detail conditions of work with radiological devices ( Diary of Laws2006 ,No. 180, position 1325) (in Polish).
  3. Staniszewska MA, Kope? R, Budzanowski M, Owsiak E (2017) Factors affecting exposure level for medical staff during orthopaedic procedures under fluoroscopic control. MedPr68: 75-83.

Citation: Staniszewska MA (2017) Factors Affecting Doses for Medical Staff in Orthopaedic Procedures under X-rays Control. Clin Res Foot Ankle 5: 235. Doi: 10.4172/2329-910X.1000235

Copyright: © 2017 Staniszewska MA. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.